Philosophy

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Dualist (example)
Believing the body and soul are separate things. Plato, forms and particulars
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Epistemology
The study of the nature and scope of knowledge
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Form
An idea of something that is transcendent, eternal, timeless and unchanging
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Archetype
An initial model for things that physically exist
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Particular
Changing, decaying objects we see around us
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Form of the good
Highest form that illuminates all other forms, allowing them to be understood, represented in the allegory by the sun
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Anamnesis
Recollection of a previous existence
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Analogy/allegory
Comparison between two things that share similar characteristics
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Hierarchy of forms
(Ascending) maths and science, abstract ideas of our world, concepts of beauty, truth and justice, the form of the good
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Empirical
Based on observations
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Material cause
What something is made from
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Formal cause
The structure or form of something
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Efficient cause
What/who made it
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Final cause
What it's purpose or "telos" is
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Prime mover
The unchanging, ultimate final cause of all that exists
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Necessary being
Something that always exists and cannot fail to exist and does not rely on anything else for its existence
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Creation ex nihilo
Creation out of nothing
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Creator
Title applied to god stating he was the cause of the universe
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Deism
Is the belief in god who starts the world off or creates it and then leaves it to run by itself
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Theism
Refers to belief in a god who creates the world and continues to sustain it
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Omnipotence
All powerful
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Omniscience
All knowing
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Omnipresent
All around
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Decalogue
Ten Commandments
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Euthyphro dilemma
Plato's dilemma-is an option good because God says its good or is it good within itself
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Anthropomorphism
Using human characteristics to describe God
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Proslogion
The book Anselm wrote
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Analytic
Proposition or statement that is incoherent to doubt (example)
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A priori
Knowledge or justification independent of experience
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Deductive
Reasoning from a premise that logically reaches a conclusion
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Ontos" logos"
Being" study of"
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Predicate
Quality or property of something
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Necessary
Something that is not reliant on anything else, it has to be that way and cannot be different
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Contingent
Something which depends on something else for its existence
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Summa theologica
Aquinas' book
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A posteriori
Knowledge or justification dependent on experience
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Inductive
Conclusion reached from specific examples
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Synthetic
Statements that are true by how they relate to the world
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Actuality
What it currently is
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Potentiality
What it has the ability to become as a result of an external factor
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Infinite regression
Chain of events that goes backwards forever
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Principle of sufficient reason
The explanation of how a thing came into existence
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Postulate of pure reason
Something put forward to solve a problem
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Critique of pure reason
Kant's book
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Interpretation of dreams
Freud's book
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Autonomy
An action that has been freely chosen
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Summum bonum
Doing one's moral duty and achieving a state of happiness
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Tripartite mind
Our subconscious consists of three parts
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ID
Primitive instincts and desires
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Superego
Similar to our conscience as it balances the influences of the ID and ego, which reasons and makes our decisions
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Ego
Shaped by external influences such as experiences, society etc
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Neuroses
Which describes problem experiences in life that are not solved but instead repressed by the mind
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Obsessional neuroses
Neuroses expressed in adulthood through compulsive, repetitive and irrational behaviour
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Oedipus complex
Boys develop sexual attraction towards their mother, become jealous of their father, repress the feeling as it is socially unacceptable, causes feeling of guilt
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Electra complex
Girls develop sexual attraction towards their father, jealous of their mother, repress the feeling, causes feelings of guilt
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Telos
Purpose
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Teleological
Argument concerned with making points about the purpose of something
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Natural laws
Physical laws of science
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Regularity of succession
Things in nature follow certain laws that lead to certain results
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Epicurean hypothesis
Hume- matter may have first been arranged by random or by pure chance
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Ockham's razor
The simplest explanation is often the most likely
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Natural selection
Small variations that occur from one generation to the next that change a living organism's characteristics to aid survival
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Theodicy
A philosophical attempt to solve the problem of evil
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Free will
The ability to make one' sown decisions and choose freely between different possible courses of action
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Moral evil
Events or acts caused by human beings choosing freely to do the act in question (example)
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Natural evil
Events that have bad or evil consequences when experienced by human beings (example)
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Privation
Lack of something
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Harmony
Objects existing in an ordered way
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The fall
The story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden and their disobeying of God
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Original sin
A reference to the first sin of Adam in the Garden of Eden and it's effects
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Perfection
God is lacking nothing and can be no different or better
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Epistemically distance
Gap of knowledge between God and humans
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Automaton
Robot
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Hypothesis
A theory put forward to explain the occurrence of some event or object
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God of the gaps
A view of God that holds God responsible for any aspect of human experience that cannot be otherwise explained
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Cosmology
Exploring the origins of the universe
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Fact
An observation that has been repeatedly confirmed
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Law
A descriptive generalisation about how some aspects of the natural world behaves under stated circumstances
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Theory
In science, a well-substantiated explanation of some aspects of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences and tested hypotheses
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Creationism
Literal interpretation of the Genesis account of creation
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Evolution
The process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth
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Big Bang theory
The universe originated sometime between 10 billion and 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small volume of matter at extremely high density and temperature
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Card 2

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The study of the nature and scope of knowledge

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Epistemology

Card 3

Front

An idea of something that is transcendent, eternal, timeless and unchanging

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An initial model for things that physically exist

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Changing, decaying objects we see around us

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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