Philosophy of Religion - The Problem of Evil

What is the problem of evil?
The existence of evil and suffering in the world at the same time as the omnipotent, omniscient and omnibenevolent - God of Classical Theism.
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What is the Epicurean Paradox?
If God is omnipotent - then he must be able to prevent evil. But He doesn't - so does this make Him no longer omnipotent - or does it just mean He is not willing.
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Who created the ''Inconsistent Triad"?
J.L Mackie
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What is the literal definition of the term ''theodicy"?
The vindication of divine providence in the view of the existence of evil.
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What is the simplified meaning of theodicy?
Attempting to explain why God and evil co-exist.
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Who invented the term 'theodicy'?
Leibniz.
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Which Biblical passages does Augustine refer to in his theodicy?
Genesis 3 and Romans 5
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What happens in Genesis 3?
Adam and Eve disobey God and eat the fruit from the tree of knowledge.
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What happens in Romans 5?
Paul describes the Christian belief that Jesus' sacrifice on the cross cancels out the disobedience of Adam and Eve. Jesus died for our sins.
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What is Augustine's Theodicy?
1) God = perfect. The world reflects perfection. 2) Humans created with free will. 3) Sin + death caused through Adam + Eve = disobedience. 4) All are ''seminally'' present - the loins of Adam. 5) Evil - consequence of Adam + Eve. 6) God =not guilty
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What is ''privatio boni"?
The privation of good.
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What is ''the privation of good''?
Evil is the privation of good - it is not a substance or material matter in itself. It is just a lack/absence of good.
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What analogy does Augustine use to illustrate his ''privatio boni"?
The analogy of blindness - blindness is not an entity; but a lack or absence of sight.
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What does Augustine say about free will?
He says that evil has come about due to free will - Adam and Eve used their free will to do evil and thus all humans must follow the same consequences.
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What does Alvin Plantinga say in support of Augustine?
In Plantinga's ''God, Freedom and Evil'' (1974) - he argued that it would be logically impossible for God to have created beings that can only do good.
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What are some criticisms of Augustine's theodicy?
How could a perfect world go wrong? How could ''perfect beings'' (i.e made in the image of God) choose to do wrong?
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What are some strengths of Augustine's theodicy?
Everyone on earth has sinned and will sin. There is evidence of Jesus dying for our sins in the Bible. Humans can cause natural evils. Evil is not a substance and therefore, cannot have been created by God.
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What are some weaknesses of Augustine's theodicy?
There was evil and suffering long before humans beings came around. We were not all seminally present in Adam and therefore do not deserve to be punished. Too complicated - breaks Occam's Razor.
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What is the Irenaen Theodicy concerned with?
''Soul making'' and the development of humanity.
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What does Irenaeus distinguish between?
The ''image'' of God and the ''likeness'' of God.
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What is suffering a necessary part of?
God's universe.
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What is the world according to Hick?
'A vale of soul-making'.
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Where is God in relation to us humans?
He maintains an ''epistemic distance''.
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What did God purposefully do to the world?
He made it imperfect.
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Why did God make the world imperfect?
In order that evil and suffering will act as challenges to bring us more towards his likeness.
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How can Irenaeus' Theodicy be summed up?
- Humans were created in the image of God to move towards his likeness. They cannot do this without evil and suffering. We have the potential for moral perfection and eventually we become ''children of God''.
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What is Hick's ''vale of soul making"?
A modern presentation of the Irenaen Theodicy. Both natural and moral evil are essential to ''soul-making'' (the world becomes a ''vale of soul-making''). This makes evil/suffering good because that is essentially what it can bring about.
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What is the Free Will Defence?
Hick believed that if humans were not given free will by God - then decisions and choices would always be determinist and humans would be ''robots''. Therefore - God must have given us free-will.
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What are some criticisms of the Irenaen Theodicy?
Suffering should never be the instrument of an omni-benevolent God. The possibility of future reward doesn't make up for immense suffering endured by millions. How is good moral behaviour encourage on Earth if even Hitler will experience salvation.
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What has the ''soul-making'' theodicy been called instead?
Soul-breaking - due to the intense amount of suffering.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the Epicurean Paradox?

Back

If God is omnipotent - then he must be able to prevent evil. But He doesn't - so does this make Him no longer omnipotent - or does it just mean He is not willing.

Card 3

Front

Who created the ''Inconsistent Triad"?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the literal definition of the term ''theodicy"?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the simplified meaning of theodicy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

zainab-shah

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Great Notes! Very Detailed.

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