Philosophy - Epistemology Key Words

Epistemology
Known as the ‘theory of knowledge’, it looks at questions of what is possible to know, what grounds our claims to knowledge are based on, what is true and what is the distinction between knowledge and belief
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Belief
A thought which is about the world. A mental representation which claims that something is the case. Belief can be true or false
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Proposition
What a statement says or asserts about the world. Like beliefs, proposition can be true or false
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Fact
Something which is the case in the world
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Truth
Involves a correspondence between a belief or a proposition and the world
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The Tripartite definition of knowledge
The idea that knowledge is justified, true belief
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Realists
would say that you believe things exist independently of our minds
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Anti-Realists
would say that what you perceive is mind-dependent
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Sense Data
The subjective, mind dependent intermediaries of perception. ‘The empirical atoms of colour, sound, smell, taste and texture out of which experience is composed’
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Primary Qualities
are the properties that actually belong to objects
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Secondary Qualities
are the properties that are reliant on humans or minds
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Scepticism
In general terms, this is a doubting attitude. In Philosophy, it is the theory that knowledge is impossible
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Solipsism
The belief that the only thing of which we are certain is our own mind
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Empiricism
A position that holds that our beliefs and knowledge must be based on experience
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Gnosticism
The view that knowledge is gained through divine revelation
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Rationalism
The view that the ultimate source of knowledge is reason
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Idealism
An anti-realist theory of perception; matter does not exist independently of the mind and all that exists are minds and their ideas
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Innatism
The view that we are born knowing certain things
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A Priori Knowledge
Knowledge independent of experience
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A Posteriori Knowledge
Knowledge based on experience of the world
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Concept Empiricism
the idea that all of our ideas and concepts are derived from experience, argues that it is only through the imprint of sense experience on the blank slate of the mind that knowledge is built up
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Causation
The relationship between cause and effect
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Logical Positivism
Only meaningful philosophical problems are those which can be solved by logical analysis
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Verification Principle
A statement which cannot be verified is strictly meaningless
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Knowledge
There are three types of knowledge: practical knowledge, factual knowledge and knowledge by acquaintance. The traditional account of factual knowledge claims that it is justified, true belief
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Practical Knowledge (Knowing ‘how’)
Knowledge required to do a particular kind of skill
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Knowledge by acquaintance (Knowing ‘of’)
Knowing in the sense of knowing a person, place, thing, sensation or feeling
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Factual or Propositional Knowledge (Knowing ‘that’)
Knowing ‘that’ something is the case
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Necessary Condition
Without that element you could not have the thing in question
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Sufficient Condition
If the necessary conditions always guarantee having the thing in question, then they are sufficient
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Direct Realism
We perceive objects directly, and objects retain their properties even when they are not being perceived
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Indirect Realism
We are aware of the way objects appear in our minds, and sensations are a representation of the external world
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The Veil of Perception
The gap between the world as it appears and that world as it really is
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Necessary Truth
A necessary truth is one which has to be true and could not be otherwise. It is one that is true in all possible worlds
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Contingent Truth
A truth which happens to be true, it is logically possible for it to be false
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A thought which is about the world. A mental representation which claims that something is the case. Belief can be true or false

Back

Belief

Card 3

Front

What a statement says or asserts about the world. Like beliefs, proposition can be true or false

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Something which is the case in the world

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Involves a correspondence between a belief or a proposition and the world

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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