Philosophy

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  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 17-02-16 15:27
Define telos.
The purpose of an object.
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Define 'The Material Cause'.
The substance from which a thing is made or created. All matter has the potential to change.
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Define 'The Efficient Cause'.
The cause which brings something into being (the way in which it was created).
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Give an example of The Efficient Cause.
A carpenter brings a table into being.
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Define 'The Formal Cause'.
The characteristic of an object which makes it the form that it is. It is the idea or plan that led to the creation of an object.
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Give an example of The Formal Cause.
A sculptor has an idea about what it is they want to create.
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Define 'The Final Cause'.
Describes what something is for (telos).
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Give an example of The Final Cause.
A plate is made so you can eat your food from it.
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What is the most important cause and why?
The Final Cause because it describes what something is for.
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What cause is the closest to Plato's idea of a Form and why?
The Formal Cause because it does not belong to an abstract world.
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Define aitia.
Aristotle's categories of types of matter.
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Define motus.
Aristotle's idea that the world is subject to change.
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Define empirical.
Reaching conclusions through observation and experiment rather than theory.
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Define eudaimonia.
Moral actions that result in the well-being of an individual.
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Aristotle believed that all movement depends on what?
Depends on their being a mover.
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For Aristotle movement included what five examples?
Change, growth, melting, cooling and heating etc.
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Aristotle recignised that everything in the world is in a state of what?
Flux.
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Who also recognised that everything in the world is in a state of flux?
Aristotle's predecessor Heraclitus.
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Aristotle argued that behind every movement there must be what?
A chain of events that brought about the movement that we see taking place.
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What did Aristotle argue about the chain of events?
They must lead back to something which moves but is itself unmoved.
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What is this unmoved cause of the chain of events also known as?
The Prime Mover.
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According to Aristotle, change is what?
Eternal.
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Why is change eternal according to Aristotle?
There cannot have been a first change because something must have happened before that change which set it off and this itslef would have been a change and so on.
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The Prime Mover is the source of all what?
Movement.
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The Prime Mover is the first of all what?
Substances.
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The Prime Mover is a being with what?
Everlasting life.
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What did Aristotle refer to the Prime Mover as in his work Metaphysics?
God.
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What cause is the Prime Mover not?
The Efficient Cause.
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What cause is the Prime Mover?
The Final Cause.
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Why is the Prime Mover The Final Cause and not The Efficient Cause?
It causes the movement of all other things.
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The Prime Mover is the what of the movement?
The purpose, end or the teleology. Not some kind of push.
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How does the Prime Mover cause things to move?
By attraction, like a cat attracted to a bowl of milk.
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Why do stars and planets move?
Out of a spiritual desire to imitate God.
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How do stars and planets move?
Moving in eternal circles.
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Who came to the same conclusion as Aristotle?
Isaac Newton in his Third Law of Motion "action and reaction are equal and opposite".
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God exists neccessarily and doesn't need what for existence?
Anything else.
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God draws things to himself and remains what?
Unaffected.
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God never changes nor has any what?
Potential to change.
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God's eternal characteristic means that he is what?
Good because there can be no defect in something that exists necessarily.
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The Prime Mover is what?
Immaterial.
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Why is the Prime Mover immaterial?
Matter is capable of being acted upon and has potential to change.
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The Prime Mover is purely what due to it being immaterial?
Spiritual and intellectual.
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What is the activity of God?
Thought.
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God thinks about what only?
Himself.
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Why does God only think about himself?
He knows only himself and not the physical world that we inhabit.
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What does God not have for us?
A plan as he is not affected by us.
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All matter must have a Form but there is one exception. What is this?
The Prime Mover as this is a pure substance that has no Form.
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The Prime Mover is Aristotle's idea of what?
God.
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All matter is moving and aspiring to what?
A transcendent God.
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Aristotle disagreed with Plato about what?
He felt that there was no proof that the Forms existed.
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How did Aristotle think that Forms could exist?
As part of things in the world and not as things in themselves beyond this world.
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What world did the Forms exist and not exist according to Aristotle?
Not in the Metaphysical world but in this one.
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What would the Prime Mover be if it thought about things outside of itself?
Not be perfect.
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According to Aristotle, how can humans achieve their full actuality?
By leading virtuous lives.
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Change comes about due to movement from potentiality to what?
Actuality.
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What are the three types of substance?
Decaying substances, non-decaying substances and substances that are immune to change.
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What is an example of a substance that is immune to change?
Numbers.
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Define potentiality.
The possibility of doing something or becoming something.
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Define actuality.
When potential is achieved.
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What are three strengths of Plato's theory of the forms?
Proves imperfections in our world, encourages people to be open minded and encourages deeper understanding and questioning.
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What are three weaknesses of Plato's Theory of the Forms?
No evidence to prove the world of the forms, our five senses have allowed us to survive and not everyone agrees on the form of beauty.
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What is an argument against Plato's Theory of the Forms?
Aristotle's 'third man' argument.
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What is Aristotle's third man argument?
If the Form is the thing that all the particulars share in, then would there not logically need to be a Form of the Form? This is something that both the Form and the particulars have in common.
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What is another argument against Plato's Theory of the Forms?
Wittgenstein thought that family resemblance explains why we look similar.
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What did Wittgenstein say about beauty?
There is not one common property that beautiful things possess but there are overlapping properties. This is known as the family resemblance idea.
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What are three criticisms of Plato's idea of the forms?
Too many forms, bad forms and the problem of incorporation.
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What is the problem of incorporation?
Some forms would logically incorporate other forms. For instance would have a form and the straight lines in the triangle would also have forms.
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What are the two types of evil?
Moral evil and natural evil.
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Give an example of moral evil.
A murder.
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Give an example of natural evil.
A tsunami.
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What is the Irenaean Theodicy concerned with?
The development of humanity.
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Who devised the Irenaean Theodicy?
Irenaeus/Saint Irenaeus.
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According to Irenaeus, why were Adam and Eve banished from the Garden of Eden in Genesis?
They were immature and needed to develop into the likeness of God.
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How are human souls made noble?
Through suffering.
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Suffering is a necessary part of God's what?
Created Universe.
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The world is a vale of what?
'Vale of soul making'.
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According to Irenaeus, are angels or external forces at work in perfecting humans?
No.
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Suffering teaches us what about the world around us?
Positive values.
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Knowledge of pain leads us to what?
Leads us to help others in pain.
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Heaven and Hell are part of the process of what?
Deification and perfect humans.
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Who else took up the Irenaean Theodicy?
Friedrich Schleirmacher (1768-1834) and John Hick.
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What does Hick include in his interpretation of the Irenaean Theodicy?
Evolutionary biology.
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What does Hick think the the first stage of humans' creation of becoming the content of God?
Homo Sapiens.
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What is becoming the likeness of God a journey of?
A journey of imperfection to perfection.
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What did Hick think that humans are born with?
An inherit knowledge of God.
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We have been placed in a what to learn and become better people?
A hostile environment.
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Why did God not make humans perfect?
So that we could become the people that he wants us to be.
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Why did Hick also think that God did not make us perfect?
Because working for something is more rewarding than being given it.
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According to Hick, humans are moving away from what and towards what?
Moving away from self-centredness and more towards God-centredness.
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What are the problems witht he Irenaen Theodicy?
Morality is pointless, Jesus's role is reduced to moral example, suffering seems unjust, suffering is limited by our capacity to feel it and our lifespan, and can suffering be justified by motive?
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Why does morilty become pointless?
Everyone goes to Heaven.
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Who is suffering unjust for in particular?
The innocent.
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Who argued that suffering is limited due to our capacity to feel it and lifespan?
Richard Swinburne.
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What are the strengths of the Irenaean Theodicy?
Can be reconciled scientifically.
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What theodicy cannot be reconciled scientifically?
Augustine's Theodicy.
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What is the source of everything according to the Augustinian Theodicy?
God.
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What did the world inherit according to Augustine?
God's eternal characteristics.
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What was Augustine's view on creation?
God only created good things, the world is creatio ex nihilo and a contingent.
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What is meant by creatio ex nihilo?
Created out of nothing.
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What is a contingent?
Something that is constantly changing.
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What was The Fall according to Augustine?
It was due to corruption and not Satan's tempation. Corruption is due to human's misusing their free will.
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What was the cause of natural evil according to Augustine?
The fall of the angels.
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What is the cause of moral evil according ot Augustine?
Humans misusing their free will and becoming corrupted.
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Why did Augustine think that evil must exist?
Because people deviate from good and evil is caused.
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Why was Irenaeus's view of God?
Let's humans become like him by following their path set out by God.
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What did Irenaeus think about creation?
Suffering was necessary as part of God's created Universe to ensure soul making.
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What did Irenaeus think of The Fall?
Teaches us positive values about the world around us, knowledge of pain leads us to seek and help others in pain and Heaven and Hell are part of the process of deification and perfect humans.
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What did Irenaeus think caused natural evil?
It teaches us positive values about the world around us.
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What did Irenaeus think caused moral evil?
Knowledge of pain leads us to seek and help others in pain, soul making and Heaven and Hell are part of the process of deification and perfect humans.
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Why did Irenaeus think that evil must exist?
In order for soul making to make humans the content of God.
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What are the seven stages of the Irenaean Theodicy?
God, embryonic creation, humans as imperfect, soul-making world, epistemic distance, eschatalogical aspect and free will.
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What is Irenaeus's view of God's nature?
God the creator is omnipotent and all-good.
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What is embryonic creation?
The Universe and Earth developed over time.
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What is humans as imperfect?
Human beings evolve from the 'image' of God into the likeness of God.
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What is soul-making world?
The world is an environment in which people grow and develop into the likeness of God. Hence natural evil is present in it.
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What is epistemic distance?
There is an epistemic distance between God and people so that human beings have the chance to chooseto freely grow into relationships with God.
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What is eschatalogical aspect?
All will come to be in the likeness of God eventually, but this will not be in physical life.
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What is free will?
Free will is valuable, so God sustains a world within which moral and natural evil occur.
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What is meant by embryonic?
The Universe and Earth developed over time.
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What is an example of embryonic on Earth?
The Earth's crust has changed due to the movement of the tectonic plates.
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What is an example of embryonic in the Universe?
Galaxies have collided and formed as one.
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What is an example of soul making?
Murder lets people become better due to compassion.
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What is an example of epistemic distance?
There are athiests that live alongside religion.
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What is an example of eschatalogical aspect?
We can't become like God because we're mortals.
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Define image of God.
In the first stage of creation humanity was created as immature and imperfect beings, at the beginning of a process of growth.
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Define likeness of God.
In the second stage of creation, which is now taking place, humanity is their own free responses from human animals into "children of God".
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Define evil.
The process of human moral and spiritual development.
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Define creation.
This was created imperfect.
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Define genuine freedom.
This establishes that God's purpose would not be possible in a world completely free from suffering and evil.
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What are the eight parts of Augustine's Theodicy?
God, harmonious creation, hierachy of beings, privation, the fall, natural evil, free will and aesthetic value.
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Define harmonious creation.
Creation is good and in the beginning was harmonious.
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Define hierachy of beings.
Angels, humans, animals.
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Define privation.
Evil is a privation or lack of goodness in something.
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Define The Fall.
Angels and human beings fall through their own free choices and give in to tempation. Sin enters the world through Adam and Eve.
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Define Aesthetic value.
The existence of evil highlights the goodness of creation because of the contrast between good and evil.
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What is meant by evil is a privation?
All things created by God are good. Evil is not good. Therfore evil can't be created by God.
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What is meant by original sin?
When Adam and Eve ate the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge in the Garden of Eden in Genesis.
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What is The Aesthetic Principle?
The existence of evil highlights the goodness of creation because of the contrast between good and evil.
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What is an example of evil is a privation?
Stealing food in order to eat to prevent starvation.
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What did Mani state about evil?
"All matter is essentially evil".
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What did Plato state about evil?
"The further one descends from goodness the more-evil it becomes".
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Define privatio boni.
Privation of good.
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What did Augustine think about how evil occurs?
Evil occurs when a being renounces its proper role in the order and structure of creation.
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True or false (Augustine)? Evil things must at least have some good in them, even Satan.
True.
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To exist is to partake in what?
Goodness (being).
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Where there is a lack of goodness there is a lack of what?
Being.
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(Augustine) Only what exists and evil things do not?
Good.
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Give an example to contradict the previous flashcard.
Did Mother Theresa exist and Adolf Hitler didn't?
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(Augustine) How did evil enter the world?
As a result of the wrong choices of free beings.
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(Augustine) What occured as a result of free will?
Corruption.
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(Augustine) Why did Adam eat from the Tree of Knowledge?
Because he had a corrupted heart and not because Satan tempted him.
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What takes place in the highest degrees of goodness?
Angels in Heaven.
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What are the two types of angel that exist?
Ones seeking to follow the ways of God and ones seeking their own desires.
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What two things contributed to the occurence of evil?
Freedom of humanity and angels to make their own decisions.
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Why did God create laws?
So that his creations could live harmoniously together.
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Why did God want his creations to live harmoniously together?
Because he loves all his creations equally.
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In what psalm did God give the Ten Commandments to Moses?
Exodus 20.
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State three of the Ten Commandments.
Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal and Thou shalt not commit adultery.
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What is said about God in Isaiah 33:22?
"The Lord God is our judge and law giver".
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What is the Euthyphro Dilemna?
Is something good because God approves of it, or does God approve of something because it is good?
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What is an example of the Euthyphro Dilemna?
Is it wrong to murder because God says, "Do not murder" in the Bible? Or does God say this because it is wrong to murder? Is murder intrinsically wrong whether God approves of it or not?
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What is the Divine Command Theory?
The origin of right and wrong in the world comes directly from God's commands.
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Give a reason for God's punishments perhaps not being just.
Why does God punish the innocent?
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Why did Richard Dawkins think that God is immoral?
God uses humans as a means, he encourages killing and violence and punishes people unjustly.
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What conclusions did Dawkins come to about God?
Not a good role model or truly good despite having good aspects.
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How are the Prime Mover and the Christian God compatible?
Both transcendent, eternal, perfect, good and immutable.
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How are the Prime Mover and the Christian God not compatible?
Only God is imnibenevolent, a craftsman, creatio ex nihilo, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent and immanent.
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Define transcendent.
Beyond or above the range of normal or physical human experience.
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Define immutable.
Unchanging over time or unable to change.
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Define omnibenevolent.
All loving and infinitely good.
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Define craftsman.
A worker skilled in a particular craft (God created the Universe).
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Define omnipotent.
Having unlimited power/all powerful.
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Define omniscient.
Knowing everything/all knowing.
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Define omnipresent.
Present everywhere at the same time/all present.
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Define immanent.
Existing or operating within; inherent.
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What did God create the world out of?
Nothing.
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How long did it take God to create the world according to Genesis?
6 days and he rested on the 7th.
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Card 2

Front

Define 'The Material Cause'.

Back

The substance from which a thing is made or created. All matter has the potential to change.

Card 3

Front

Define 'The Efficient Cause'.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of The Efficient Cause.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define 'The Formal Cause'.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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