Pharmacology lecture 17

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What are the 2 main chemical classes of hormones?
Steroidal and non-steroidal
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What are steroids synthesised from and where?
Cholesterol. By adrenal cortex, testis, ovary, placenta
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Do steroid hormones have a delayed or rapid effect?
Delayed
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Do non-steroidal hormones have a delayed or rapid effect?
Rapid
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What are the properties of steroidal hormones and where to they exert their effects?
Small, lipid soluble. They diffuse into cell and bind to intracellular receptor complexes. The complex then binds to DNA response element and modulates transcription of genes
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What are the properties of non-steroidal hormones and were do they exert their effects?
Hydrophilic. Bind receptor on surface of the cell (G-protein or Tyrosine kinase)
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Give 4 types of non-steroidal hormones
Amines, peptides, proteins, glycoproteinsWhat
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What are the 4 factors controlling hormone levels?
1) Neuronal control 2) Trophic control (stimulation from other hormone) 3) Substrate control 4) Feedback control
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What are the effects of cortisol?
Increase and maintain normal glucose levels. Increase gluconeogenesis. Decrease protein synthesis. Regulate brain function. Immune response
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What is a disorder of cortisol?
Cushings syndrome - cortisol hypersecretion
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What are the causes of Cushings?
Adrenal or pituitary tumour. Side effect of chronic glucocorticoid therapy
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How is Cushings treated?
Removal of tumour. Inhibition of cortisol synthesis by metyrapone
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In the treatment of Cushings what enzyme does metyrapone block?
11beta-hydroxylating enzyme
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What is a disorder of insulin?
Diabetes mellitus - insulin hyposecretion or insulin receptor hyposensitivity
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What is type II diabetes?
Hyposensitisation of insulin receptors
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How do you treat type II diabetes?
Treat with sulphoylureas which block KATP channels in the beta-cells of the Islets of Langerhans. This causes depolarisation and increase insulin secretion
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What is type I diabetes?
Hypo secretion of insulin
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How is type I diabetes treated?
Substitute with insulin
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What is a disorder of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
Diabetes insipidus - Copious hypotonic urine resulting from a decrease of ADH secretion
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How do you treat diabetes insipidus?
Use V2 agonists
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What is cortisol metabolised by?
11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
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What blocks 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase?
Carbenoxolone - increases cortisol levels - anti-inflammatory effects
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When is carbenoxolone used?
Treatment of gastric ulcers
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Card 2

Front

What are steroids synthesised from and where?

Back

Cholesterol. By adrenal cortex, testis, ovary, placenta

Card 3

Front

Do steroid hormones have a delayed or rapid effect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Do non-steroidal hormones have a delayed or rapid effect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the properties of steroidal hormones and where to they exert their effects?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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