Peter the great Reforms

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why were there limits to peters power after 1689?
1.unable to overcome the long standing barriers of reform: inertia, corruption and size of Russia . 2. passive resistance= Noble and peasants 3. Cost of noble support: strengthening the bonds of serfdom, limit developoment induct
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why were there no limits to his power after 1689?
1) embark on massive reform ( army navy) 2) subordination of the russian orthodox church 3) opposition easily crushed i.e. Ashrakans 4) limits noble resistance 5) inability of peasants to resist
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why did peter make St Peters burg his capital? (personal reasons)
1) love of the sea 2) hatred for moscow- conservatism and his childhood 3) needed new capital
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why did peter make St Petersburg his capital? (westernisation reasons)
important symbol for his scheme of modernising and westernising, window to the west, cultural centre, wanted somewhere= try out western techniques
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why did peter make St Petersburg his capital? (military and economic reasons)
Geographical position= open up trade strategic position for GNW, break swedens dominance of Baltic trade, export of Russian goods, Commercial port and Naval base
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how did peter reform the army after Narva
introduced conscription after 1705, emphasis on discipline and action, new simple uniforms, more modern weapons, development of artillery, enlarged and made it aperfessional unit.
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what were the problems with the army
1711 defeated at Pruth, longstanding problems remained in the arm i.e. leadership rivals, and quality of officers remained variable.
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how was the navy the most important reason for success in peters Foreign Policy
Built from scratch, success at Azov, opening of the naval academy, threaten + supersede Swedens dominance of Baltic sea + Battle of Cape Hango pressure sweden into Treatu of Nystad, force other EU countries to take notice
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how was it not the most important reason for the success of peters Foreign policy
ar,y reform was more important before poltava, Naval ships+base- dismantled after truth, decline of navy after peters death- limits importance, success of FP due to Charles XII. other domestic reforms, only a great significance in the second half GNW
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why was the senate introduced in 1711?
Pruth Campaign- concerned gov wouldn't function in Peter's absence, peter modernising Russia- more efficient structure, senate- make revenue collection better, effective replace,nt of the Duma, Strengthen peters absolute position, fitted into mod pln
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how were the government reforms effective?
replacement of pricey colleges, reforms of local administration, increase revenue, reforms o civil service and education- improve quality of personal
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how were the government reforms not effective
remained problem: criticism of senate+ corruption, Fear of Peter, lacked ability to make decisions, resistance of nobles to reform, the difficulties of using freeing structures, difficulties administrating large state, adhoc planning
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what was the central government like before peter?
Prikazy, Duma
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what were the Prikazy?
-44 to 50 government departments which each had specific administrative functions
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what was the problem with the Prikazy
Their roles were often overlapping or unclear making the system inefficient. There was also high levels of corruption
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what was the duma
A council of nobles which supervised the tsar.
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what was the problem with the duma
The numbers had decreased by 60% in 1690, meaning their supervision was no longer effective
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what was the overall problem with the central government before Peter came to the throne?
It was inherently weak with no overall coherence that created chaos, corruption and inertia.
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how did Peter change the government first?
-He created the Ratusha in 1699 in response to war with Sweden. -This was the central office in charge of tax collection from the burmistry (local tax collectors).
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what did peter do to the Prikazy
Added new departments e.g. the navy prikaz (1698) which added to the confusion.
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What was the overall summary of these first changes to central government?
They were ad hoc and piecemeal in response to war with Sweden - the direct response to immediate needs, therefore failed to deal with underlying problems.
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What changes to government did Peter bring with the start of the Pruth campaign?
- Senate -Fiskals
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When did Peter introduce the Senate and why?
1711 -set up to replace Peter temporarily as ruling Russia while he was away on the Pruth campaign
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What was the role of the Senate?
- chief executive of central government and highest court of appeal -oversaw provinces and supervised tax collection - 9 officials
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What did the fiskals do?
Checke the honesty and integrity of government officials to prevent corruption
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How many fiskals were there?
500
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What was introduced for the fiskals in 1711?
Oberfiskal
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What was introduced in 1715 to help the Senate and was this effective?
Inspector-General to oversee the meetings. No - was abolished in 1718.
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What were some of the problems with the Senate?
-no actually independent will from autocratic tsar so lacked executive power -Peter's regulations limited its reduced its productivity for example by threatening harsh punishments and discipline -corruption, irresponsibility, time wasting -lack of ad
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What was a fundamental problem with the Senate?
Inefficiency - -it's workload was too great to be able to meet all of its demands -by 1722 there was a backlog of 16,000 unresolved matters
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Why can the Senate be seen as a successful reform?
It lasted 200 years in Russia as a Supreme Law Court
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What changes were introduced into central government in 1718?
-Colleges -Procurator-General
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Why were the Colleges introduced?
1718 - replaced the prikazy that were abolished in 1718
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What evidence is there that this was one of Peter's most well-planned reforms?
idea gained from German and Scandinavian states in 1715 -research was carried out by Heinrich Fick in Sweden in 1716
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What evidence is there of foreign influence?
-Based on Swedish model -John Luberas recruited 150 European personnel to serve in the Colleges -by 1722 most foreigners had gone with key posts in the hands of Russians
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What were the Colleges in?
9 Colleges introduced 1718 -Admiralty, War, Foreign Affairs (operational) -3 in finance, 3 in industry (operational 1720) 1721- 12 colleges
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Who ran the colleges?
12 members in each college. Overseen by Senate and Procurator general 1722.
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What was the Procurator General?
Introduced 1722 - Tsar's personal representative in the Senate and most powerful man in Russia after the Tsar. Also in charge of the fiskal system.
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What were some of the problems with the Colleges?
-the colleges had the same staff as the Prikazy so there were no major changes with corruption and infighting due to factional rivalries -the staff still feared making mistakes leading to inactivity -many had little experience, expertise or education
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What was local government like before Peter?
Voevedy existed -these were local military governors -in charge of tax collection, conscription and justice system -hugely corrupt as little tax revenue reached the government -lacked any real power from central government
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What changes did Peter introduce?
-Burmistry (1699) -Gubernii (1708) -Doli (1715) -Provinstii (1718)
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What were the Burmistry?
Introduced January 1699 - delivered tax to the Ratusha in Moscow in order to increase the tax revenue -gave greater power to local government over provincial government
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What were the problems with the Burmistry?
-no real change as had same role as voevedy -lacked any real power -system of electing officals not adopted well into Russian towns -unwilling, untrained, corrupt and inefficient
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What were the Gubernii and who were they run by?
1708 russia was divided into 8 large provinces ruled by a gubernator chosen from Peter's closest associates
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What were the Gubernators in charge of?
the judicial, administrative, policing and financial affairs in their province
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Why did Peter introduce the Gubernii?
Hoped to decentralise Russia in times of war to make it more efficient
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What was the problem with the Gubernators?
they were chosen from Peter's closest associates so were already too busy to live in and attend to their guberni properly this meant it fell to inadequately able nobles to manage affairs
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When did Peter introduce the doli?
1715 to make the size of each provinstii more managable
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What did Peter introduce in 1718?
the Pronvinstii which divided each gubernii into 50
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What were the Provinstii based on?
the Swedish model
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What did Peter order in 1724 for the provinstii?
That towns could govern themselves through elected boards.
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What was the problem with implementing the Provinstii?
What was the problem with implementing the Provinstii? The introduction of the Swedish system was incomplete and half-hearted as Peter spent less overall on every provinstii than Sweden did alone on the one provinsti Livonia
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What problems were there still in local government?
-corruption and laziness still remained -the idea of elections was not well accepted into the Russian towns -the sheer volume of constant changes meant the system lacked coherency and was confused
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Card 2

Front

why were there no limits to his power after 1689?

Back

1) embark on massive reform ( army navy) 2) subordination of the russian orthodox church 3) opposition easily crushed i.e. Ashrakans 4) limits noble resistance 5) inability of peasants to resist

Card 3

Front

why did peter make St Peters burg his capital? (personal reasons)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

why did peter make St Petersburg his capital? (westernisation reasons)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

why did peter make St Petersburg his capital? (military and economic reasons)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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