Perspectives and Treatments for mental disorders

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The Biomedical Approach
Routed in Kreapelin (1856-1926) His textbook in psychiatry (1883) provided the basis for the current medical approach to mental illness: Abnormal behaviours represent symptoms of underlying disorders or diseases called mental illness; those have bio
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The Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) -APA
It was used as a ‘matching tool’: specific symptoms were matched with specific disorders… The same method applies today (Davies 2013)
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DSM 5
The multi axial system used in the previous versions of the DSM has been removed (these aimed to help clinicians to differentiate MDs from general medical conditions) In the DSM V it is simply stated-rooted in biological causes
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Psychodynamic Apporach
Routed in Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Our personality is shaped by our past experience Past traumatic events &/or lack of ‘good relationships’ are at the basis of MDs
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Psychodynamic defence mechanisms
builds up rigid defence mechanisms to protect herself from traumas and/or lack of significant events E.g. Denial Rationalization Projection
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Psychodynamic techniques - dream analysis
Dream analysis Inacceptable thoughts are converted into ‘topics’ of the dreams (Freud, 1900) How? Condensation: of several events/ impulses Manifest meanings Latent meanings
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Other techniques
Analysis of defence mechanisms Free associations Transfer Contrasfer Freudian sleeps
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The new Psychodynamic approach
Based on the work on Anna Freud (1895-1982), Melanie Klein (1882-1960), and Donald Winnicott (1986-1971). Direct observation of the infant’s behaviour, including playing. More emphasis on the present & on attachment
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Aims of new approach
Insights’ To re-built the Self  to equip the person with adequate instruments to solve future problems
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Behavioural approach to abnormal behaviour
Behaviour is learned It’s learned through conditioned/ unconditioned responses It’s shaped through reinforcements and punishments
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Behavioural techniques
Aims: reinforcement of specific behaviours and extinguishment of negative ones How? Behaviour Modifications: Shaping Fading Token Economy
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An example of therapeutic punishment in BA (Blount et al., 1982)
G., 16 year old girl with severe intellectual disability  target: Bruxism Punishment: every time she grounded her teeth  staff members touched her face with ice cube for a few seconds  bruxism decreased after a few month until eventually ceased
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Criticisms of behavioural therapy
treats symptoms but not causes. It may be unethical to deprive patients of certain things as a form of punishment
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Cognitive Approach
Informational-processing model Schemas: accumulated knowledge Constructs. Abnormality has to do with faulty schemas & constructs
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Aim of the cognitive therapy
Fixing cognitive distortions e.g.: I failed an exam therefore I am worthless; It’s raining: that means my day is going to be destroyed; Even if I passed an exam it doesn’t mean I am going to succeed… Replace cognitive distortions with rational alt
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CBT
Assessment of maladaptive behaviours Awareness/acknowledge of maladaptive behaviours Skills acquisition Consolidation of new skills / homework/ diaries Generalization Assessment follow-up
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Card 2

Front

It was used as a ‘matching tool’: specific symptoms were matched with specific disorders… The same method applies today (Davies 2013)

Back

The Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) -APA

Card 3

Front

The multi axial system used in the previous versions of the DSM has been removed (these aimed to help clinicians to differentiate MDs from general medical conditions) In the DSM V it is simply stated-rooted in biological causes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Routed in Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Our personality is shaped by our past experience Past traumatic events &/or lack of ‘good relationships’ are at the basis of MDs

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

builds up rigid defence mechanisms to protect herself from traumas and/or lack of significant events E.g. Denial Rationalization Projection

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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Comments

Rhiannon19

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It would be beneficial to add humanistic perspectives such as Maslow, Rogers and Seligman.

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