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  • Created on: 06-05-14 17:59
distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling and acting that characterise a person's responce to situations
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Jean Charcot
hysteria systems related to repressed memories, used free association and dream interpretation
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Freud psychoanalytic theory
personality is energy - instrinctual drives generate psychic energy which seeks release, can be release during sex
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inner core, present at birth, driven by libido, pleasure principle (seeks immediate gratification, regardless of rationality)
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direct contact with reality, concious level, reality principle (when ID can satisfy needs, compromise superego and ID)
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traditional values, strives to control ID, quest for moral perfection, impulses can never occur
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Defensive mechanisms
unconcious mental operations that minimise anxiety by denying or distorting reality, permit realise of ID in diguised forms
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ego uses energy to prevent anxiety-arousing memories, feelings and impulses from entering consciousness, primary defense mechanism, temporary
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Psychosexual stages
periods of development, ID's pleasure-seeking tendancies are focused on areas of body that are pleasure seeking
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arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular theme
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First Stage
Oral stage - infancy, satisfaction related to mouth, fixation may result in overeating or being needy
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Second Stage
Anal - 2 to 3, satisfaction with elimination, fixed produces anally retentive such as OCD or anally expressive such as messiness
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Third Stage
Phallic - 4 to 5, children develop feelings for parent of opposite sex, anger towards same sex, resolved through bonding with them, fixation leads to relationship issues and sex issues
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Female version of Oedipus compelx
Electra Complex
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Fourth Stage
Latency - 6 to 12, dorment sexual interest, focus on same sex peers
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Fifth Stage
Genital - 12 onwards, focus on normal healthy adulthood sexuality
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Neoanalytic approaches
disagree with Freud, too much on sexuality and not environment/society
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Personal unconcious - individual experiences, Collective unconcious - memories collected by human race
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inherited tendancies to interpret experiences in certain ways, dispositions to behave, perceive and think, find expression in symbols, myths and beliefs in culture
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Evaluation of Freud
Not in controlled lab settings, little empirical support, difficult to disprove, rich theories in personality
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believe we act as a responce to our immediate conscious self and environment, positive view of humanity individuals potential to reach goals
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Primacy of recent events
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Personal contruct theory (Kelly)
primary goal to find personal meaning, constructs are categories to sort out life events using schemas and stereotypes, consequences of contruing info in various ways
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Role contruct repertory test
assess individuals constructs through their dimensions used to categorise people
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Rogers Theory of Self
natural forces direct us to self-actualisatoin, highest human potential
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Organised, consistent set of perceptions about oneself since childhood
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Self consistency
an absense of conflict amongst self-perceptions
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consistency between self-perceptions and experiences
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Inconsistent experiences evoke
threat, well adjusted individuals modify self-concept to increase congruency
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Conditions of worth
circumstances which we approve/disaprove of ourselfs, causes incongruence between self and experience, feel angry if they disapprove
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Self verification
the need to confirm the self-concept
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Self enhancement
a strong and positive/persuasive tendancy to gain a positive self image
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Evaluation of Humanism
rely too heavily on self-report, measured and tested, recent developments for brain activity and positive psychology movement
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Goals of Treat Theorists
classes of behaviour define personality, ways of measuring differences in personality traits, use measure to understand and predict behaviour
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Personality Traits
stable cognitive, emotional and behavioural characteristics that establish identities and distinguish from others
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Lexical Approach
proposes traits from everyday language (friendliness, self-esteem)
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Factor analysis
identify clusters of behaviours that correlate with each other, eg - extraversion and introversion categories
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Enysenck's super traits
Extraversion and Neuroticism (susceptibility to anxiety)
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The Five-Factor Model
Extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openess to experiences
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Evaluation of Trait Perspective
value of identifying, classifying and measuring personality, need to focus on how traits interact, focuses only on description and ignores explanation
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Genetics and personality - twin studies
identical twins are more similar, especially when reared together
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variance is explained by genes and experiences, not home
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Ensenck's extraversion-stability model
biological basis for personality traits, different levels and shifts of arousal (extra = under, intro = over)
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individual differences in emotional and behavioural styles, present at birst, emotionality, activity level, blocks for later personality development
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Evaluation of biological
supported by technical advances and scientific research evidence, more research needed to explore biological origins
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Social cognitive perspective
combines behavioural and cognitive perspectives, stressing interaction of social environment providing learning experiences
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Reciprocal Determinism
person, behaviour and environment influence each other
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Rotter engagment in behaviour determined by
expectancy (how likely concequences will occur), reinforcement value (how much desire or dread for outcome)
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Locus of control
internal (life outcomes under personal control), external (external influences)
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a person's belief concerning ability to perform desired behaviours
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Four determinants
previous performance, observational learning, verbal persuasion, emotional arousal
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Evalutation of social-cognitive
scientific basis bringing approaches together, more research needed
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Culture differenes
look at copmlexity and interdependance as western more independant whereas others are interdependant
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Gender schemas
attributes that are appropriate and expected from males and females
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Assessment of personality 5 types
interviews, behavioural assessment, remote behavioural sampling, personality scales, projective tests
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Projective tests
ambiguous stimulus and asked for interpreation, Rorschach ink block
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Three adult attachment styles
secure, anxious-avoidant, anxious-ambiguous
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higher level of extraversion means
higher life satisfaction
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what portion of the brain is involved in inhibited-uninhibited tendancies?
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What is the rational-theoretical approach of developing personality scales?
items are based on the theorist's conception of the personality trait to be measured
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when an unacceptable impulse is repressed and attributed to other people
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What does the lexicon approach focus on?
words and concept
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when a person represses the emotion connected with an upsetting event and deals with it as an intellectually interesting event
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Neoanalysts believe in what two key factors influencing personality?
social, cultural
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Jean Charcot


hysteria systems related to repressed memories, used free association and dream interpretation

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Freud psychoanalytic theory


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