Personality

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  • Created by: ishayaqub
  • Created on: 13-05-16 13:20
What is personality?
The thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make an individual unique
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What is temperament?
The genetic component of personality
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What is a longitudinal study?
A study carried out to show how behaviour changes over time
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Describe the Thomas, Chess and Birch aim?
To discover whether ways of responding to the environment remain stable throughout life
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Describe the Thomas, Chess and Birch method?
They studies 133 children from infancy to early adulthood. The children's behaviour was observed and their parents were interviewed. The parents were asked about the child's routine and it's reaction to change.
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Describe the Thomas, Chess and Birch results?
They found that the children fell into three types: "easy", "difficult" or "slow to warm up". The "easy" children were happy, flexible and regular. The "difficult" children were demanding, inflexible and cried a lot.
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Describe the Thomas, Chess and Birch results continued?
The children that were "slow to warm up" did not respond well to change or new experiences to begin with, but once they had adapted they were usually happy.
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Describe the Thomas, Chess and Birch conclusion?
These ways of responding to the environment stayed with the children as they developed. Thomas, Chess and Birch concluded that temperament is innate.
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What is an evaluation for the Thomas, Chess and Birch study?
It was a longitudinal study so some participants could drop out which could affect the results. The parents may have been biased in the answers they gave in the interviews, they might have given answers that showed their child in a good way.
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What is a monozygotic twin?
Twins that are developed from one fertilised egg.
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What is a dizygotic twin?
Twins developed from two separately fertilised eggs.
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Who came up with the type theory and what is it?
Eysenck and it is when personality types are thought to be inherited. They can be described using related traits.
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What are the three personality types?
Extroversion, introversion and neuroticism
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What is meant by an extroversion?
A personality type that describes people who look to the outside world for entertainment
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What is introversion?
A personality type that describes people who are content with their own company.
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What is neuroticism?
A personality type that describes people who are highly emotional and show a quick, intense reaction to fear
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Describe the aim of the Eysneck study?
To investigate personality differences between people
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Describe the method of the Eysneck study?
700 servicemen completed a questionnaire. Eysneck analysed the results using a statistical technique known as factor analysis
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Describe the results of the Eysneck study?
He identified two dimensions of personality: extroversion- introversion and neuroticism- stability
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Describe the conclusion of the Eysneck study?
Everyone can be placed along these two dimensions of personality. Most people lie in the middle of the scale
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Give an evaluation of the Eysenck study?
He only carried out the study on service men so cannot represent the rest of the world. He used questionnaires so the answers people gave could have been based on their mood at the time.
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What is psychoticism?
A third dimension identified by Eysneck. People who scored high on this dimension are hostile, aggressive and cruel
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What is Antisocial Personality Disorder?
A condition in which the individual does not use socially acceptable behaviour or consider the rights of others
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What are characteristics of APD?
Not following norms and laws of society,lying, being impulsive, being careless, being irresponsible.
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What is the amygdala?
Part of the brain involved in emotion
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What is the Grey matter?
The outer layer of the brain
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What is the Prefrontal cortex?
The very front of the brain. It is involved in social and moral behaviour and controls aggression
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Describe the aim of the Raine study?
To support the theory that abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex cause APD
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Describe the method of the Raine study?
MRI was used to study 21 men with APD and a control group of 34 healthy men. The subjects were all volunteers
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Describe the results of the Raine study?
The APD group had an 11 per cent reduction in prefrontal grey matter compared with the control group.
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Describe the conclusion of the Raine study?
APD is caused by a reduction in the brain's grey matter
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Give an evaluation for the Raine study?
Raine only studied on males and not on women so cannot be representative of women. The study supports the biological explanation that APD is caused by an abnormality in the brain.
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What is meant by the situational caused of APD?
That APD can be caused by the situation that someone is brought up in. Such as Socioeconomic factors, home conditions, poor parenting
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What are socioeconomic factors?
Social and financial issues that can affect an individual
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What is the Elander aim?
To investigate the childhood risk factors that can be used to predict antisocial behaviour in adulthood
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What is the Elander method?
Researchers investigated 225 twins who were diagnosed with childhood disorders and interviewed them 10-25 years later
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What is the Elander results?
Elander found that childhood hyperactivity, conduct disorders, low IQ and reading problems were strong predictors of APD and criminality in adult life
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What is the Elander conclusioon?
Disruptive behaviour in childhood can be used to predict APD in adulthood
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What are evaluations for the Elander study?
The study only tested on twins so genetics may have affected their behaviour. The participants were asked to describe experiences from childhood, which they may have remembered wrong.
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What are Practical implications of APD?
Research into APD shows we can prevent and treat the disorder: If APD has a situational cause then you can reduce childhood problems to reduce the risk of APD developing.
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What is temperament?

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The genetic component of personality

Card 3

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What is a longitudinal study?

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Card 4

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Describe the Thomas, Chess and Birch aim?

Back

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Card 5

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Describe the Thomas, Chess and Birch method?

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