Stage from 65 years onwards. A person in this stage is called elderly and they face physical, intellectual, emotional and social challenges.
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Getting shorter, weight loss, skin less elastic, reduced hearing and eye sight.
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Forgetting words, action slips, slower problems solving, slow to adapt to new ideas, reduced short and long term memory.
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Reduced self concept, reduced confidence and self esteem, loneliness, bereavement
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Less social contact, retirement, death of partner, social isolation, reduced social skills.
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Decrease in neural processing in the brain due to atrophy, leading to dementia, Muscles become weaker unless exercise programmes are followed, respiratory and circulatory systems become less efficient, leading to more infections and general problems.
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Physical impacts 2
More easily tired, due to reduction in stamina, decreased sensitivity of all sensory modalities, such as smell, taste, touch, hearing and vision.
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Poor memory leading to increase in forgetfulness, decrease in cognitive abilities
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Low self esteem and confidence due to reduced independence and feelings of insecurity.
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Limited opportunities to spend time with others leading to inability to interact with others and develop relationships.
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Limited income if unable to work, possibly compulsory retirement, lack of opportunity to take a part time job, could be dependent on state pension.
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Employment barriers:Lack of opportunities due to discrimination
May be considered as to old to do certain jobs or get promotions, so could miss out on opportunities. Could be discriminated against due to ageism, not be given the chance for a job.
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Employment barriers:Lack of flexibility
Many companies wont employ beyond retirement age, not have flexibility of job, so no opportunity of them being employed again.
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Societal barriers: resulting from ignorance, prejudice and discrimination
May be discriminated against due to their age, or if people have a lack of knowledge about later adulthood.
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Societal barriers: Social exclusion
May be discriminated against due to prejudice or ageism, might be excluded if others bully/abuse them for their age.
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Societal barriers:Low expectations of ability
People may think they are unable to do certain things, like getting a job, due to their age, but some PLA are perfectly able to work.
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Societal barriers: Societal expectations
Society may have expectations for everyone, but some PLA cannot do this, such as having a job, due to having to retire.
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Economic barriers: Loss of earnings
May have loss of earnings due to retirement, so no income.
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Economic barriers:Requirement for specialist support not provided by state
May need domiciliary care or residential care but might not be provided by state, so may have to pay themselves, or compromise it.
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Economic barriers: Lack of access to benefits
PLA may have lack of access if they cannot complete forms, so wouldnt get benefits and would rely on state pension.
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Economic barriers: Access to benefits
Could have benefits if assisted to complete the forms.
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Environmental barriers:Poor accessibility of services
If they have mobility problems, they could not walk to local bus stop so couldnt access transport, or might not be able to afford the local bus fare.
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Environmental barriers:Access to public/private transport
Due to mobility problems, they could not walk to bus stop so cant use that and due to loss of hearing/sight cant have private transport due to loss of license.
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May be bullied for their age, rude names or verbally bullied about it.
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Can be verbally or physically abused about their age and getting older.
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Could become stressed due to loss of earning due to leaving job or retirement, or due to them not being able to do certain things they could before.
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Could self harm if they thought that was the only way to relieve the stress.
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Risks:social isolation and exclusion
May live alone due to partner passing away, may not be able to get around due to transport fares or no license, if no relatives they would have no visitors so would be isolated.
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Ensures they are protected in the workplace and provides legal rights for if they are discriminated against, provides them with safety as if they are discriminated against action can be taken, allows them to receive same opportunities as others.
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Legislation:Care standards act
Aims to promote high standards of care and protects vulnerable people, domiciliary care, ensures they receive a high standard of care throughout treatment and care.
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Legislation:Mental capacity act
Aims to cover major decisions about property and finances, health and welfare and where they live. Everyday decisions about personal care and provides them with help if unable to make the decisions alone. Decision is made in their best interests.
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Policies/codes of practice:Workplace bullying policy
Anti-bullying policy, protects them from being bullied or discriminated against for their age, ensures they are happy at work and safe, and action can be taken if they are bullied.
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Service provision:Day care
PLA might use day care to interact with others and receive social contact, travel to day centre and gives them a chance to socialise with others. Provided by charities or local authorities.
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Service provision:Domiciliary care
PLA might use domiciliary care if their condition is not as bad that they need constant care, they help with everyday tasks like washing and preparing meals, allows them to stay in their own home for longer but can be costly.
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Service provision:Residential care/nursing home care
PLA might need residential care if they cannot live at home any longer or have no relatives. Provides a range of services on a long term basis, receive supervision and personal care, helping to prevent further injury/harm to themselves. Is expensive
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Practitioners: Social worker
Assess the needs of a PLA living at home, provided by the state, private hospitals or voluntary.
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Practitioners: Community nurse
Help PLA by offering emotional support and advice to them and their families
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Helps PLA by helping them get back into normal life after having serious health problems, like heart attacks etc.
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Practitioners: Care assistant
Help PLA as they would have carers in a residential care home, provided by state or private.
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Practitioners: Domiciliary carer
Helps PLA as they find it hard to do day to day tasks like washing and preparing meals, provided by state or privately.
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Practitioners:Officer in charge of a care home
Help PLA as they cant live independently or have no relatives, therefore they would need to be in a care home.
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Psychological LQF: Equitable treatment
Need to be treated the same as everyone else
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Psychological LQF:Social contact
Need social contact so they dont become isolated and depressed
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Psychological LQF: Occupation
So they have something interesting to do like a job/hobby.
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Psychological LQF: Psychological security
So they know they are safe at all times and need to feel safe
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Psychological LQF: Dignity
Needs to be respected when helping with hygiene and personal thing such as washing and bathing.
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Psychological LQF: Stimulation
Provides them with interesting activities so that they are not bored.
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Physical LQF:Freedom from pain
Need to be comfortable and relaxed at all times
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Physical LQF: Nutrition
As they are older their bodies are not as fit and healthy, so good nutrition can help with health and ensure that they are strong.
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Physical LQF: Physical comfort
Access to heating at all times to ensure they are comfortable at home
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Physical LQF: Physical safety and hygiene
May be unable to keep it up themselves, domiciliary carers/relatives help with hygiene
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Caring skills: communication
May wish to reminisce about their youth, show photos of family, get them to recall faces and events to help with memory. Not use colloquialisms as they may not understand.
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Caring skills: Modelling
Important for them to learn to act similarly to others, greeted with a cheery greeting, hopefully leading them to act in the same way and show good social skills. Also demonstrating to them how to put a hearing aid on.
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Caring skills: Physical contact
Comforting a client who is anxious or upset by touching their hand/arm can provide them with comfort and help to relax them.
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Can become hostile in their care home, by breaking away for a short period diverts the attention, to another task or client, helps to calm the situation.
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Caring skills:eye contact and facial expression
Can make them do something that they dont want to do like getting them to take a bath, making sure you maintain eye contact when getting them to agree or smiling at them when anxious.
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Caring skills: Setting challenges
Could have become isolated so could attend local day centre or become familiar with the internet.
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