Periodicity

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  • Created by: r98
  • Created on: 18-04-16 12:56
How can Na, Mg, & Al be described? What is their appearance like? Are they conductors?
They're metallic, they're shiny and they conduct electricity.
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What is formed when Na, Mg & Al react with dilute acids?
Hydrogen and salts.
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What can silicon be described as? Does it conduct?
It's a semi-metal (metalloid), it conducts electricity to some extent.
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What can phosporus, sulfur and chlorine be described as? Do they conduct? Do they have high or low melting and boiling points?
They're non-metals, they don't conduct electricity. They have low M.P & B.P.
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What does argon exist as? Is it reactive?
It exists as seperate atoms and is chemically unreactive.
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How can all the reactions of Period 3 elements be described as?
Redox reactions.
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What are the only Period 3 metals, & non-metals that will react with cold water?
Metals: Sodium and magnesium. Non-metal: Chlorine.
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How can the reaction between sodium and water be described as?
It's vigorous; Na floats on surface of water and fizzes, rapidly melting because of the heat given out by the reaction.
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What is formed when sodium reacts with water? What is the pH of this solution?
A strongly alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide is formed (pH 13-14).
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Is the reaction between magnesium and water fast or slow?
It's slow at room temperature.
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Why is the resulting solution, from the reaction of Mg and H2O, is less alkaline that in the case of sodium?
Because magnesium hydroxide is sparingly soluble.
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Is the reaction of heated magnesium and steam faster or slower that the reaction of magnesium and water? What are the products of the reaction?
It's much faster. Magnesium oxide and hydrogen are produced.
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What colour is the flame when sodium burns in air? What is the product of this reaction?
Bright yellow flame. White sodium oxide is formed.
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What's the formula of sodium oxide?
Na2O(s)
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What is the equation for the reaction of sodium burning in air?
2Na(s) + 1/2O2(g) -----> Na2O(s)
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What colour is the flame when magnesium is burnt in air? What is the product of this reaction?
Bright white flame. A white powder of magnesium oxide is produced.
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What's the equation for the reaction of magnesium burning in air?
2Mg(s) + O2(g) -----> 2MgO(s)
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What can be seen when aluminium is burnt in oxygen? What is the product of this reaction?
A bright flame. A white powder of aluminium oxide is formed.
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What is the equation for the reaction of aluminium burning in oxygen?
4Al(s) + 3O2(g) -----> 2Al2O3(s)
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Why does aluminium appear to be an unreactive metal eventhough it is actually a reactive metal?
Because it's always coated with a strongly bonded surface layer of oxide, which protects it from further reaction.
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What is the equation of the reaction of silicon burning in oxygen?
Si(s) + O2(g) -----> SiO2(s)
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What can be seen when white phosphorus reacts with oxygen?
Whtie smoke of phosphorus pentoxide.
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What is the equation of the reaction of phosphorus burning in oxygen?
4P(s) + 5O2(g) -----> P4O10(s)
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If the supply of oxygen is limited, what is formed from the reaction of phosphorus and oxygen?
Phosphorus trioxide, P2O3(s).
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What can be seen when sulfur is burnt in oxygen? What is the product of this reaction?
A blue flame. Sulfur dioxide (colourless gas) is formed.
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What is the equation of the reaction of sulfur burning in oxygen?
S(s) + O2(g) -----> SO2(g)
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what type of structures are sodium, magnesium and aluminium oxides? How does this affect their melting point?
Giant ionic lattices. As a result they have high melting points.
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Why can we not say that the bonding in aluminium oxide is purely ionic?
Because aluminium oxide has some covalent character.
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Why does aluminium oxide have some covalent character?
Because aluminium forms a very small ion with a large positive charge and so can approach closely to the O^(2-) and distort its electron cloud.
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What is considered when predicting the ionic character of a bond?
The difference in electronegativities between the two atoms. The bigger the difference, the greater the ionic character.
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What is the name of the structure of silicon oxide?
Giant covalent (macromolecular) structure.
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Why is the melting point of silicon oxide high?
Because it's a compound with many strong covslent bonds that need to be broken to melt it.
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What is the structure of phosphorus and sulfur oxides?
They exist as separate covalently bonded molecules. The intermolecular forces are weak van der Waals and dipole-dipole forces. Phosphorus oxide is a solid, sulfur dioxide is a gas.
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Are the melting points of phosphorus and sulfur oxides high or low?
They are relatively low.
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Are sodium and magnesium oxides acids or bases?
They're both bases.
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What is produced when sodium oxide reacts with water?
A strongly alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide
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What is the equation for the reaction of sodium oxide and water?
Na2O(s) + H2O(l) -----> 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)
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What's produced when magnesium oxide reatcs with water?
A somewhat alkaline solution of magnesium hydroxide, which is sparingly soluble
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What is the equation for the reaction of magnesium oxide and water?
MgO(s) + H2O(l) -----> Mg(OH)2(s) Mg^(2+)(aq) + 2OH-(aq)
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Which 2 oxides are insoluble in water?
Aluminium oxide & silicon dioxide.
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Do phosphorus and sulfur form acidic or basic oxides?
Acidic oxides.
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What is produced when phosphorus pentoxide reacts with water?
An acidic solution of phosphoric(v) acid.
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What's the equation for the reaction between phosphorus pentoxide and water?
P4O10(s) + H2O(l) -----> 4H3PO4(aq)
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What is the equation for the first stage of the ionisation of phosphoric(v) acid?
H3PO4(aq) H+(aq) + H2PO4-(aq)
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What is produced when sulfur dioxide reacts with water?
An acidic solution of sulfuric(iv) acid (sulfurous acid).
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What's the equation for the reaction of sulfur dioxide and water?
SO2(g) + H2O(l) -----> H2SO3(aq)
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What's the equation for when sulfuric(iv) acid partially dissociates?
H2SO3(aq) H+(aq) + HSO3-(aq).
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What causes the acidity of the solution of slufuric(iv) acid?
The H+ ions, that are produced when the sulfuric(iv) acid partially dissociates.
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What's the equation for the reaction of sulfur trioxide with water? Name the product.
SO3(g) + H2O(l) -----> H2SO4(aq) -----> H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq) Sulfuric(vi) oxide.
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What is the overall pattern for the reactions of Period 3 oxides with water?
Metal oxides (left side of period) form alkaline solutions in water and non-metal oxides (right side of period) form acidic solutions. Those in the middle do not react.
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Why do sodium and magnesium oxides produce alkaline solutions when they react with water?
Because they contain the oxide ion, O^(2-), which is a very strong base (it strongly attracts protons) and so readily reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions.
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Why is aluminium oxide insoluble in water?
The ionic bonding is too strong to be seperatee, partly because of the additional covalent bonding it has.
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Why is silicon dioxide insoluble in water?
It's a giant macromolecule and water will not affect this type of structure.
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What are the only products when sodium and magnesium oxide react with acids?
Salt and water only.
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What is the equation for the reaction of sodium oxide with sulfuric acid? Name the product.
Na2O(s) + H2SO4(aq) -----> Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l). Product = sodium sulfate.
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What's the equation for the reaction of magnesium oxide with hydrochloric acid? Name the product.
MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) -----> MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l). Product = magnesium chloride.
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Why is aluminium oxide called an amphoteric oxide?
Because it reacts with both acids and alkalis.
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What's the equation for the reaction of aluminium oxide with hydrochloric acid? Name the product.
Al2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) -----> 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l). Product = aluminium chloride.
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What's the equation for the reaction of aluminium oxide with hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide? Name the product.
Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 3H2O(l) -----> 2NaAl(OH)4(aq). Product = sodium aluminate.
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What's the equation for the reaction of silicon dioxide with hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide? Name the product formed.
SiO2(s) + 2NaOH(aq) -----> Na2SiO3(aq) + H2O(l). Product = sodium silicate (a colourless solution).
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What is the overall reaction of phosphoric(v) acid with sodium hydroxide?
3NaOH(aq) + H3PO4(aq) -----> Na3PO4(aq) + 3H2O(l)
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What's the equation for the reaction of sulfur dioxide and sodium hydroxide? Name the product.
SO2(g) + NaOH(aq) -----> NaHSO3(aq). Product = sodium hydrogensulfate(iv).
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What's the equation for the reaction of sodium hydrogensulfate and sodium hydroxide? Name the product.
NaHSO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) -----> Na2SO3(aq) + H2O(l). Product = sodium sulfate(iv).
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What is formed when Na, Mg & Al react with dilute acids?

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Hydrogen and salts.

Card 3

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What can silicon be described as? Does it conduct?

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Card 4

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What can phosporus, sulfur and chlorine be described as? Do they conduct? Do they have high or low melting and boiling points?

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Card 5

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What does argon exist as? Is it reactive?

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