Perception (PS111)

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  • Created on: 03-12-16 19:11
What comes under perception?
Hearing, Taste, Smell and Touch
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Why are faces important?
For recognising people, and learning things about emotions.
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What are sound waves?
Soundwaves are the result of movement and vibration. These vibrations are then carried to us as changes in the air pressure.
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What are the names for the different changes in air pressure relating to sound?
Compression and Rarefaction
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What is a Compression?
When the particles in the air are pushed together making a area of high pressure.
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What is a rarefaction?
When the particles in the air are spread apart making an area of low pressure.
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What is Language?
An exploitation of our sensitivity to sound waves and we can use them to move thoughts from one person's head to another.
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What is sound?
The change in air pressure over time.
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What do we use to explain high and low frequencies?
Assign the frequency a value in Hz. (Hertz)
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What is the normal frequency range of human hearing?
20Hz to 20kHz
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What is the lowest range humans can hear in ideal conditions?
12Hz
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What is the frequency range of dog whistles?
16Hz to 22KHz
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What is the frequency range of dogs?
40Hz to 60kHz
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Roughly only humans under _____ can here frequencies above 17khz
30
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What is the Mosquito device?
A device which emits a sound at 17kHz. As those over 30 can't hear it, it is designed to keep young people away.
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What does the Semicircular canals do within the ear?
Gives us balance
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What are the three sections of the ear?
Outer, middle and inner
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What does the Eustachian tube do within the ear?
Equalizes pressure between inside and outside
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In what section of the ear can you find bones?
Middle
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How many bones are there in the ear?
3
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What are the three ear bones called?
Malleus, Incus, Stapes
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What is another name for the Malleus?
Hammer
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What is another name for the incus?
Anvil
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What is another name for the Stapes?
Stirrup
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What is the name of the snail shell shaped part of the ear?
The Cochlea
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In what section of the ear is the cochlea located?
The inner
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Name four parts of the Cochlea
Oval window, Basilar membrane, Organ of Corti, Round window
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What does the Oval window do?
It is like an eardrum and receives vibrations from the stapes
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What does the Basilar membrane do?
Turns vibrations into electrical activity via transduction and runs along the length of the cochlea.
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What does the organ of corti do?
Turns vibrations into electrical activity via transduction
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What does the round window do?
Allows the fluid in the cochlea to move
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What does the organ of corti consist of?
The Outer hair cell, the Tectorial membrane, the inner hair cell and the Tunnel of corti
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What are the most important bits of the ear which create a signal for the brain?
The basilar membrane and the hair cells in the organ of corti.
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How does the Basilar membrane vibrate?
The cochlea is filled with fluid. The sound waves vibrate this fluid. As the Basilar membrane is within the Cochlea it will vibrate as well.
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Is the base or apex (top) of the basilar membrane more responsive to high frequencies?
The Base
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s the base or apex (top) of the basilar membrane more responsive to low frequencies?
The Apex
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Is the basilar membrane Tonotopically mapped?
Yes
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What does the fact the basilar membrane is tonotopically mapped mean?
It means that different frequencies produce different responses in different parts of the basilar membrane.
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What causes the basilar membrane to be tonotopically mapped?
The structure
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What does Stereocilia mean?
It is the latin name for little hairs
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What is the Stereocilia?
The name for the very tiny inner hair cells within the organ of corti
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Hair cells help ______ sound waves into electrical engery.
Transduce
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What are the two membranes which work with the stereocilia to transduce sound waves?
Basilar and Tectorial
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____ motion between the basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane creates a shearing force on the stereocilia?
Relative
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When in movement the stereocilia ____ against the ____ membrane
brushes, tectorial
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What type of changes causes the outer hair cells to change?
Electrical
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In what way does the electrical changes, change the outer hair cells?
It causes them to contract and expand
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What type of substance does hair cells secrete?
A transmitter substance
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What does the transmitter substance which hair cells secrete do?
It activates the nerves that are attached to the hair cells
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Where does the electrical information produced by the organ of corti go?
To the Auditory nerve then into the brain.
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Does all auditory information go to the same brain area?
No (Information gets taken to various brain areas that process the information for different purposes)
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Do you need to know all of the places auditorily information might get taken to within the brain?
No
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What is the PAC?
Primary auditory cortext
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What is a scale used to show the intensity of a sound wave (loudness of a noise)?
Decibel (dB)
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What is the difference between Hertz (Hz) and Decibels (dB)
Hertz measures frequency (pitch) and Decibels measures intensity (volume)
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What is the lowest level dB humans can hear?
0
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What type of scale is the decibel scale?
Ratio
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What is a Ratio scale?
A ratio scale is an interval scale in which distances are stated with respect to a rational zero rather than with respect to, for example, the mean
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What is an interval scale?
A interval scale is a measurement where the difference between two values is meaningful
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What happens if you have prolonged exposure to loud sounds?
Your hearing can be damaged. As the sound physically damages the cochlea and the hair cells.
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What sounds above a certain decibel are considered loud?
Sounds above 80dB are considered loud.
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What does Olfaction mean?
It is the sense of smell
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Why can you smell something?
Because there is a molecule in the air
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Does the smell of someone affect there likability?
Yes
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Are you aware that the smell of someone is effecting your opinion of them?
No, it is subliminal.
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What is considered a nice smell for a person to have based on a study?
Lemon
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What is considered a nasty smell for a person to have based on a study?
Sweat
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What is the name of the area in the brain involved in the sense of smell?
The olfactory bulb
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How does the brain differentiate between different smells?
There are different receptors which respond to different molecules. This activates neurons higher up and this is transduction in smell.
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What is the brains first stage for processing odor information?
The olfactory receptor neurons.
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How do the olfactory receptor neurons help in processing odor information?
The neurons from these cells reorganise as they travel towards the brain
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What is the second stage in the brain for processing odor information?
The glomeruli
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What happens at the glomeruli?
This is where the olfactory receptor neurons gather to form tiny spheres (glomeruli.) Each glomerulus receives part of a neuron from nose cells containing the same type of olfactory receptor.
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What does the glomeruli enable the brain to do?
The hunderands of glomeruli resemble a switchboard. The different arrangements can be interpreted as different smells.
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What does the mitral cells do?
They start to process the information provided by the glomeruli and then distribute it to the rest of the brain to interpret.
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What is the name of the diagram used to map out how different smells go together?
The smell prism
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Who came up with the smell prism?
Hans Henning
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What are the 6 dimensions of smell?
Ethereal, Resinous, Spicy, Burned, Fragrant, Putrid.
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What is an example of a ethereal smell?
Lemons
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What is an example of a resinous smell?
Pine
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What is an example of a spicy smell?
Cloves
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What is an example of a fragrant smell?
Vanilla
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What is the sense organ for taste?
Taste buds
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How do taste buds work?
They respond to chemicals in the saliva, corresponding to different taste sensations.
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What are the four sensations taste buds can detect?
Sweet, Salty, bitter and sour
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All taste buds are equally sensitive to different taste sensations?
False. (Each taste bud is most sensitive to one of these sensations)
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Where are the signals from the taste buds relayed to?
The thalamus via the hind brain.
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Where do the taste bud signals go from the thalamus?
To specific taste zones in the cortex
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What is the top part of the taste bud called?
The taste pore
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What type of cells do taste buds contain?
Taste receptor cells and basal cells.
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Describe the process of tasting something.
Molecules come in the top of a taste bud, this produces a response. This then gets transmitted through nerves into the brain.
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How many tastes buds do we have?
Around 10,000
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Where are the taste buds located?
Mainly on the tongue, but also on the back of the throat and palate
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How many primary taste qualities are there?
5
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What are the 5 primary taste qualities?
Sweet, Bitter, Salty, Sour, Umami
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What is the umami taste quality?
It is a savoury taste coming from meat or mushrooms.
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Is the umami taste quality important?
Yes. It is a meaningful dimension of taste, but there is no specific set of taste buds for it.
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What part of the brain is mainly responsible for dealing with taste?
The olfactory system
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What is more sensitive smell or taste?
Smell is 10,000 times more sensitive than taste
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If the nose fails (from a bad cold for example) what percentage of the "taste ability" is lost?
80%
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What are the three sensors for touch you need to know for your exam?
Pacinian corpuscle, free nerve endings and hair receptors
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What is the largest touch sensor?
The pacinian corpuscle
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Where is the Pacinian corpuscle located?
In the hypodermis
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What is the hypodermis?
The innermost thick fatty layer of skin
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What does the Pacinian corpuscle respond to?
Vibrations
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What are free nerve endings?
Neurons that originate in the spinal cord, enter and remain in the skin
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Where are the free nerve endings located?
At the bottom of the epidermis
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What do the free nerve endings do?
Transmit information about temperature and pain
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Where are hair receptors located?
In the dermis
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How are hair receptors related to hair?
They are wrapped around the bottom of each hair follicle
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What do hair receptors respond to?
Pressure, when the hairs are bent
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What is the temperature of human skin?
32°C
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Ambient temperatures can come to feel normal no matter what the temperature
False, it is up to a point.
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