Perception.

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Perception.
Usually effortless, Dynamic constructive process, constructs reality. Perception and sensation are related yet distinct, sensation- a physical process (see with our eyes). Perception- a psychological process (percieve with our brains).
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Sensation and Perception.
Perception cannot take place in the absence of sensation (would otherwise be a hallucination). Sensation is the raw daat or material from which perceptions are made.
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Images from the eye- Sensation.
Upside down, distorted (much smaller), no depth/flat image and no colour.
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Images perceived by the brain- Perception.
Correct way up, correct dimensions (shape and size), 3D (depth) and in colour.
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Stages of Perception- Organisation- Figure and Ground.
Ability to pick out objetcs/sounds/smells/noises. Allow them to stand out from tbe background (figure). Whilst others are relegated to the background (ground),
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Stages of Perception- Organisation- Grouping.
Explains why certain parts of the world become figures and others become background. Brain uses the Gestalt principles/laws. Used to organise our world.
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Gestalt Laws/ Principles.
Proximity (grouping things that are close together), Similarity (grouping together things similar), Closure (able to make up or assume things about something thats not whole) and Continuity (following a continuous pattern).
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Recognition.
Goes beyond the information given. Depth cues- Monocular (pictoral/non pictoral), Binocular. Constancies-size, shape, brightness/colour, location. perception of motion.
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Depth Perception.
Allows us to perceive objects in 3D- height, distance and depth- use: Monocular cues (one eye) and Binocular cues (two eyes).
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Monocular Cues- Pictoral and Non Pictoral.
Pictoral- One eye- cues that are learnt. Relative size, Relative height, Superposition, Texture gradient, Linear perspecitve, Light/shadow, Movement gradient/motion parallax. Non pictoral- Not learnt- product of mechanisms of eye- Accomodation.
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Binocular Cues.
Involves the use of 2 eyes. Not learnt. Reliant upon mechanisms of eye. Retinal disparity, convergence.
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Distance and Depth.
Host of cues: From the environment, retinal images, from the mechanisms of the visual system. All combine to give and accurate sense of depth and distance. Add experience, perceptual constancies.
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Constancies.
Constancies allow perceptions to remain stable. Used to 'shortcut' the process of perceiving the information sent by the senses: Size, shape, brightness/colour and location.
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Perception of Motion.
Gain a lot of information from how something moves: Relative motion, Absolute motion and Induced motion.
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Illusions.
Occur when we apply the normal percpetual rules/processes to information that do not follow the normal rules. Occur because our brain is actively filling the gaps. Brain provides interpretations that go beyond the information provided by the senses.
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Interpretation- Bottom Up (Ecological Theory).
Fairly direct, passive process. Information provided by the environment (bottom up).
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Interpretation- Top Down (Constructionalist).
Dynamic, active process. People make decisions based on hypotheses (testable ideas)- Knowledge and past experiences (top down). Can be influenced by emotion, context and stress.
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Interpretation- Interactionist (TD and BU combined).
Depends on presentation of stimuli. Natural world- rich source of info- Bottom up approach. Restrict available cues- make guesses based on knowledge and experience- Top down approach.
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Interpretation- Computational.
Places grater importance on the way the senses work and how the brain and nervous system manipulates the signals.
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Social Perception.
Common principles of perception are used: Organisation, recognition and interpretation. In order to form impressions of other people and situations.
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Gestalt Principles.
Use Gestalt Principles of grouping to form global impressions- fit pieces together and fill the gaps.
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General vs Social Perception.
General perception- Use cues- depth, constancies and motion. Social Perception- use schemas e.g. 'difficult child', 'drug user'.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Sensation and Perception.

Back

Perception cannot take place in the absence of sensation (would otherwise be a hallucination). Sensation is the raw daat or material from which perceptions are made.

Card 3

Front

Images from the eye- Sensation.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Images perceived by the brain- Perception.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Stages of Perception- Organisation- Figure and Ground.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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