PEOPLE REVISION QUESTIONS PART 3

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State a benefit of trade unions to an employer
workers will have their individual rights better protected
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State a benefit of trade unions to an employer
cheaper and quicker to bargain with one trade union representative than individual workers
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State a benefit of trade unions to an employer
Workers are better motivated if they feel their interests are being looked after by trade unions
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What is a single union agreements?
where an employer agrees to deal with only one union
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What is a no strike deal?
where unions agree never to strike if a dispute can't be settled
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State a feature of Tall Organisations
Many layers of hierarchy
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State a feature of Tall Organisations
Long chain of command
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State a feature of Tall Organisations
Slow decision making
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State a feature of Tall Organisations
Often poor communication
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State a feature of Tall Organisations
Good promotional opportunities for the employees due to the number of different levels
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State a feature of Flat Organisations
Few layers of Hierarchy
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State a feature of Flat Organisations
Can respond quickly to change due to good communication
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State a feature of Flat Organisations
Less chance of promotion for the employees
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State a feature of Flat Organisations
Saves on managerial costs. Managers are more expensive, this structure has very few layers of management
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State a feature of Flat Organisations
reduced opportunity for training and development of future managers
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What does span of control refer to?
the number of employees a manager has working for them
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What does a wide span of control mean?
it means that the managers has lots of staff working directly for them
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State a feature of Wide span of control
Greater decision making for employees. The manager can't tell everyone what do all of the time therefore he/she needs to give some control over to the employee
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State a feature of Wide span of control
Often improves Job satisfaction
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State a feature of Wide span of control
Lower costs involved in supervision as there are more people in teams
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State a feature of Wide span of control
too wide and it can become difficult to supervise
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State a feature of Wide span of control
can be difficult for management to keep control
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State a feature of Narrow Span of control
the manager can keep tight control
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State a feature of Narrow Span of control
the manager has close supervision
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State a feature of Narrow Span of control
the manager can co-ordinate subordinates activities easier
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State a feature of Narrow Span of control
improved communication as teams are smaller
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State a feature of Narrow Span of control
workers can become demotivated due to the extra supervision
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What does centralised mean?
the owner has all of the power and makes all of the decisions
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State an advantage of being Centralised
Rules can be standardised
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State an advantage of being Centralised
All managers act in a similar way
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State an advantage of being Centralised
Everyone knows what is expected of them
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State an advantage of being Centralised
Everyone works at the same standard
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State a disadvantage of being centralised
shows lack of trust in managers
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State an advantage of being Centralised
local managers know the local market best
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State an advantage of being Centralised
decision making can be slow as the local manager needs to get permission
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What is decentralised?
As the business grows power is delegated to local managers or heads of department to make decisions on their own
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State an advantage of being decentralised
Quick and often creative local decision making
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State an advantage of being decentralised
Shows managers they are trusted which leads to higher levels of motivation
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State a disadvantage of being decentralised
Local managers might make mistakes
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State a disadvantage of being decentralised
They might all act in different ways
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State a disadvantage of being decentralised
Doesn't present a standard business image
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State a disadvantage of being decentralised
A mistake by a local manager might affect the image of the business as a whole
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What does delayering involve?
involves removing an entire layer and by doing this the structure flattens
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What is the functions and responsibilities of the HR department?
recruiting and selecting staff, organising training and staff development, keeping staff records and maintaining staff welfare
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What is the functions and responsibilities of the finance department?
preparing accounts, monitoring finances and recording transactions
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What is the functions and responsibilities of the production department?
ordering supplies, storing raw materials, manufacturing the products, quality control and meeting production targets
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What is the functions and responsibilities of the marketing department?
responsible for marketing and selling of the goods
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What is the functions and responsibilities of the distribution department?
distribution of the finished goods both in the U.K and overseas
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What is the functions and responsibilities of the ICT department?
maintaining IT equipment and the computer network, maintaining IT security, updating the website and helping computer users
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What is the functions and responsibilities of the customer services department?
responds to customer enquiries, deals with complaints, provides technical help and advice to customers
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Explain how Internal growth can cause change
As a sole trader the business will have a very centralised and flat organisation structure. As it begins to grow it starts to decentralise and add more hierarchy levels as it gets taller
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Explain how Integration and Merger can cause change
If a business joins/merges with another it doesn't need two of the same department and so many of the departments can be combined
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Explain how changes to products and services can cause change
If the business launches a new product or service it might need to change its functional areas. Perhaps it might open a new branch that will deal with the new product/service and this involves changing its organisation structure
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State one way how business now employ staff
part-time work
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State one way how business now employ staff
flexible working hours
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State one way how business now employ staff
seasonal work
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State one way how business now employ staff
working from home
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State one way how business now employ staff
job sharing
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What are the four methods of communication?
Internal, External, Formal and Informal
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What is Internal communication?
When messages are being sent between people in the same business
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What is External communication?
When messages are being sent between a business and someone outside of the business
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What is Formal Communication?
These are the channels of communication set up by the business and they can be horizontal or vertical
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What is Informal Communication?
known as the grapevine e.g. meetings with friends, chat with others at the canteen
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State a barrier to effective communication
message sent at the wrong time
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State a barrier to effective communication
message may not be clear/ uses jargon
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State a barrier to effective communication
the wrong method of communication might have been used
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State a barrier to effective communication
feedback from the receiver is not recieved
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State a method of overcoming communication barriers
increase the frequency of communication
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State a method of overcoming communication barriers
make communication as clear as possible
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State a method of overcoming communication barriers
use a range of communication techniques
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State a method of overcoming communication barriers
avoid jargon/ encourage feedback
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State a method of overcoming communication barriers
use the shortest channel of communication possible
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The style of the manager affects
how they motivate their staff
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State the main management styles
Autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire
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State one of the features of Autocratic management style
Leader makes all of the decisions, sets objectives and tells others what to do
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State one of the features of Autocratic management style
Employees are given little chance to question decisions
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State one of the features of Autocratic management style
Communication is top down
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State one of the features of Autocratic management style
Tasks are set out by the leader and instructions and rules are set
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State one of the features of Democratic management style
Leader encourages employees and teams to help in decision making
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State one of the features of Democratic management style
Multi-channel flow of communication
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State one of the features of Democratic management style
Employees believe management objectives as they have had a part in creating them
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State one of the features of Democratic management style
Employees are often more motivated, but decisions can take longer to be made due to lengthy discussions being often required
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State one of the features of Laissez Faire management style
The employees and teams set their own objectives and make their own decsions
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State one of the features of Laissez Faire management style
The employees and teams are self-managing and decide themselves on how things will be done
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State one of the features of Laissez Faire management style
The team communicates as it sees fit
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What are appraisals?
A method of assessing how effective an employee has been
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State the purpose of an appraisal
to improve the performance of the employee
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State the purpose of an appraisal
to give the employee feedback
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State the purpose of an appraisal
to identify future training needs
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State the purpose of an appraisal
to consider the development of the individuals career
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State the purpose of an appraisal
to set targets for the new year
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State one way how ICT has affected businesses
Internet: 24 hour advertising, e-commerce
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State one way how ICT has affected businesses
email: fast communication
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State one way how ICT has affected businesses
graphics packages: design products faster
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State one way how ICT has affected businesses
presentation software: pass info to clients, customers and work force
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State one way how ICT has affected businesses
mobile technology: allows employees to work from home and still access their files at work
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State one way how ICT has affected businesses
databases: keep customer and employee records. allows the business to search quickly
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State one way how ICT has affected businesses
word processing: production of high quality letters and business reports
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State an advantage of ICT
helps staff work faster
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State an advantage of ICT
improves the quality of presentation
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State an advantage of ICT
info can be shared more easily
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State an advantage of ICT
staff have greater freedom about where to work
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State an advantage of ICT
less office space is needed
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State an advantage of ICT
businesses can communicate better with their customers
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State a disadvantage of ICT
buying and setting up ICT is expensive
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State a disadvantage of ICT
workers need training on how to use it
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State a disadvantage of ICT
some workers might be worried that ICT threatens their jobs and so might get demotivated
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

State a benefit of trade unions to an employer

Back

cheaper and quicker to bargain with one trade union representative than individual workers

Card 3

Front

State a benefit of trade unions to an employer

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a single union agreements?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a no strike deal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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