P.E physiology

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Arteriole
Connects the arteries to the capillaries away from the heart
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Artery
Connects the Aorta to the arterioles away from the heart
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Atrial Diastole
the Atria fill with blood (both the Atrioventricular and semi-lunar valves are open).
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Atrial Systole
Atria contract, forcing blood into the ventricles (Atrioventricular valves open and Semi-lunar valves are closed).
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Atrioventricular valves (tri/bicuspid)
These are small valves that prevent backflow from the ventricles into the atrium during systole.
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Autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary action such as heart beat.
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AV Node
delays the transmission of the cardiac impulse from spreading to the ventricles (for 0.1 seconds) this enables for the atria to contract fully before ventricular contraction begins.
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Blood Pressure
the force exerted by the blood on the inside walls of the blood vessels.
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Blood redistribution
results from the vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying organs such as the intestines, and vasodilation of the arterioles supplying the more active muscles with more blood.
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Bradycardia
a resting heart rate below 60 BPM.
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Bundle of HIS
impulses are sent down the septum of the heart from the AV node via the Bundle of HIS.
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Capillary
connects the arterioles to the venules. Capillaries are where diffusion takes place the easiest as it is only one cell thick.
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Capillary Bed
a layer of tissue densely packed with capillaries.
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Cardiac Control Centre (CCC)
is located in the brain, and controls the impulses created in the heart by the Syno Atrial node (SA node) as well as the impulses in the Atrioventricular node (AV node). The 'CCC' therefore controls systole in the atria and ventricles, and consequent
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Cardiac Cycle
goes from Atrial Diastole to Ventricular Diastole to Atrial Systole to Ventricular Systole and repeats.
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Cardiac Hypertrophy
increased size and strength of the heart muscles
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Cardiac Output
the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in a given period of time.
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Diastole
The phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood
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Diastolic pressure
the blood pressure after the contraction of the heart while the chambers of the heart refill with blood.
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Heart rate
number of beats per minute.
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Myogenic
an impulse that originates in the muscle.
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Parasympathetic nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system originating in the brain stem and the lower part of the spinal cord that opposes the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system. For example, slowing the heart.
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Pocket valves
valves in the veins stopping the back flow of blood.
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Pre-capillary sphincter
The precapillary sphincter is a band of smooth muscle that adjusts the blood flow into each capillary.
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Purkinje Fibres
Purkinje fibres allow the heart’s conduction to create synchronized contractions of its ventricles, and are therefore essential for maintaining a consistent heart rhythm.
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Pulmonary Circulation
circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs
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SA Node
is the pacemaker of the heart: a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat.
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Semi-lunar Valves
they are in the arteries leaving the heart and are called the aortic valve and the pulmonary valve. They stop the back flow of blood.
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Stroke Volume
the volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat.
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Sympathetic nervous system
found in the spinal cord, it opposes physiological effects of the parasympathetic nervous system i.e speeds the heart.
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Systemic circulation
circulation that supplies blood to all parts of the body except to the lungs.
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Systole
The phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries.
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Systolic pressure
the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) during the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
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Vagus nerve
Conveys sensory information about the state of the body's organs to the central nervous system.
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Vascular Shunt
is the distribution of blood to working muscles around the body
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Vasoconstriction
constriction of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure
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Vasodilation
dilatation of blood vessels, which decreases blood pressure.
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Vasomotor control
Vasomotor refers to actions upon a blood vessel which alter its diameter i.e vasodilator action and vasoconstrictor action.
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Vein
carries blood away from the heart.
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Venous return
Venous return is the rate of blood flow back to the heart.
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Venous return mechanism
Mechanisms that help blood get back to the heart are: Respiratory pump Mechanism, Muscle Pump Mechanism and Pocket valves.
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Ventricular diastole
is the period during which the ventricles are relaxing
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Ventricular systole
contraction of the ventricles
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Connects the Aorta to the arterioles away from the heart

Back

Artery

Card 3

Front

the Atria fill with blood (both the Atrioventricular and semi-lunar valves are open).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Atria contract, forcing blood into the ventricles (Atrioventricular valves open and Semi-lunar valves are closed).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

These are small valves that prevent backflow from the ventricles into the atrium during systole.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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