PE full course EDEXCEL

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  • Created by: Kerry
  • Created on: 13-05-13 12:47
Physical benefits of exercise
Contributes to good health, increases fitness, improves performance, improves health related fitness factors
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Social benefits of exercise
Mix with other people, meet new people, develop team work/cooperation, stay in touch with old friends
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Mental benefits of exercise
Prevents/relieves stress and tension, mental challenge, increase confidence/self esteem, helps individual to feel good (serotonin)
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Benefits of physical activity
Increase fitness, to feel good, relieve stress and tension, increase self esteem and confidence, improve health, enjoyment, mental challenge
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Reasons for taking part
Cooperation, competition, physical challenge, aesthetic appreciation, development of friendships and social mixing
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Influence of taking part - cultural factors
disabilities, age, gender, public perception, religion, race
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Influence of taking part - health and wellbeing
injuries, illness
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Influence of taking part - image
people copy role models image, clothes, media
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Influence of taking part - people
influence of parents or peers
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Influence of taking part - socio economic
cost of equipment, facilities
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Government initiatives
2 hours of pe a week, encourages participation of sport and improves fitness
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Pe School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL)
Strengthens links between school and sports clubs, provides oppurtunities for people to take part in sport as performers, leaders, officials and volunteers
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Sport England (start, stay succeed)
Start - increase participation to increase health of the nation, Stay - retain people in sport by clubs, sports facilities etc, Succeed - create oppurtunities for talented performers to achieve success
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Youths sport trust TOP link
Encourages people (14-16) of all abilities to participate in sport
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Participation pyramid - foundation
Learning and experiencing basic sports skills e.g. primary school pe lesson
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Participation pyramid - participation
young people begin to participate regularly in a specific activity for enjoyment e.g. local clubs
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Participation pyramid - performance
young people concentrate on sport specific skills to develop talent e.g. county and national squads
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Participation pyramid - excellence
Where individuals reach sporting excellence e.g. international athlete
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Health
A complete state of mental, physical and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or illness/infirmity
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Health related fitness - Body composition
The percentage of body weight that is muscle, fat and bone
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Health related fitness - Flexibility
The range of movement available at a joint, test: sit and reach test
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Health related fitness - Muscular endurance
The ability to use voluntary muscle for long periods of time without tiring, test: Harvard step test
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Health related fitness - Muscular strength
The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance test: hand grip dynometer
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Health related fitness - Cardiovascular endurance
The ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time without tiring, test: cooper 12 minute run
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Skill related fitness - Power
The ability to do strength performances quickly, strength x speed = power, test: standing broad/vertical jump
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Skill related fitness - Speed
The differential rate at which an individual can perform a movement or cover a distance, test: 30m sprint
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Skill related fitness - Reaction time
The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of movement, test:ruler drop test
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Skill related fitness - Balance
The ability to retain the body's centre of mass above the base of support with reference to dynamic and static movement, test: standing stork test
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Skill related fitness - Agility
The ability to control movement of the whole body and change the direction of the whole body quickly, test: Illinois agility run
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Skill related fitness - Coordination
The ability to use two or more body parts at the same time, test: juggling or wall toss
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RIPS - rest and recovery
The period of time allotted to recovery, the period of time to allow the body to repair damage from training
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RIPS - individual needs
Matching training to the requirements of an individual
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RIPS - progressive overload
Gradually increasing the amount of overload so that there is fitness gain but without potential for injury
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RIPS - specificity
Matching training to the requirements of an activity
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FITT - used to increase the amount of work the body does to achieve overload
F - frequency (how often to train), I - intensity (how hard to train), T - time (how long each session), T - (method of training)
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Reversibility
The loss of fitness due to lack of training caused by an injury or illness
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Smart goals
Specific (goal must be direct), Measurable (must be able to measure target and show comparisons), Achievable (need to be achievable to stay motivated), Realistic (is it realistic to life/ability), Time bound (does goal have end point, enough time?)
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Methods of training - Interval training
is anaerobic, has intervals to allow recovery, takes place over short periods/bursts, improves cardiovascular, raises pulse rate near to maximum, is cheap, can be done individually or in a group, can be adapted to fit individual needs
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Methods of training - Continuous training
improves aerobic fitness, includes long slow activity, is cheap, can be done individually or in a group, is suitable to improve health and fitness, can be done in a variety of places, can be adapted to fit individual needs
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Methods of training - Fartlek training
can take place anywhere, can be done over a variety of terrains, can include repetition, programmes can be very flexible, rest periods can be included, suitable for general fitness, it is cheap, can be adapted to fit individual needs
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Methods of training - Circuit training
circuit training is the best for general all round fitness, in can combine everything in one session, the equipment need not be expensive, can be tailored to individual needs, includes both aerobic and anaerobic activities
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Methods of training - Weight training
can improve muscular strength, muscular endurance and power, there is a wide variety of exercise; it is easy to monitor progress
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Methods of training - Cross training
a mixture of all training methods, allows for variety of training making it interesting, you can train with others or alone, you can leave rest periods for different part of the body, training can be adapted to the weather
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Exercise session - Warm up
: gradually raises body temperature + heart rate and improves the exchange of oxygen. Prevents injury, improves performance, prepares psychologically, should include stretches, takes between 5- 15 minutes
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Exercise session - Main activity
the heart rate should be raised for minimum of 20 minutes
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Exercise session - Cool down
gradually decreases the body temperature + heart rate and disperses lactic acid, should take 5-10 minutes lowering the hear rate and 10-15 minutes stretching, stretches should be held for 30 – 35 seconds
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Exercise and diet
Energy intake should equal energy expenditure
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Carbohydrates
Should form the main part of our meals every day and should supply most of the energy. 50% of our daily intake should be complex carbohydrates, Stored: in the muscles as glycogen, Excess carbohydrates: energy provided is stored as fat
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Protein
Build muscles and repair.
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Fats
Should be 30% of our total diet, High density lipoproteins: good cholesterol, Low density lipoproteins: bad cholesterol. It is deposited on the arteries, this restricts blood flow and increases blood pressure, It puts strain on the heart
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Calcium - Function
Needed for normal growth, main mineral in bones and teeth - strength and hardness, helps blood clot and nerves and muscles work properly
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Calcium - Sources
vitamin D is needed to help the body absorb calcium. It is found in plant foods, calcium is added to some foods, dairy products
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Calcium - Deficiencys
bones become weak and so become more likely to break, tetany (condition were muscles become rigid and will not relax, osteoporosis
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Iron
To make haemoglobin red meat, liver, kidney, dried apricots, lentils etc. cereals with fortified iron, green leafy vegetables (vitamin C is needed to help the absorption of iron), deficiency - anaemia
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Sodium
Needed to control the amount of water in the body, needed to help the body use energy, to control the nerves and muscles
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Potassium
Helps all cell function
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Vitamin A
Needed for healthy skin, vision deficiency - night blindness, slow growth, struggle to fight infection
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Vitamin D
Needed to absorb calcium - for strong bones and teeth, sun and dairy products deficiency - rickets
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Water
Needed in all cells and tissues, part of chemical reactions, help to remove waste through urine, helps absorb nutrients, control body temperature, dehydration without
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Fibre
not digested by the body, It makes you feel full after a meal. It helps reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood, helps get rid of solid waste matter, helps digestive system, lack of it causes constipation and increase in risk of bowel cancer
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Carbo-Loading
Eat more protein will help muscles to repair after high intensity sessions and run down the energy levels then increase the carbohydrate intake the body thought it was starving and so it is fooled to store more energy that usual, used by endurance
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Blood shunting
Should eat 2-3 hours before exercise, during exercise blood is diverted away from digestive system to working muscles, cramp and indigestion
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Endomorph
an individual with wide hips and narrow shoulders characterised by fatness. Enlarged, pear shaped body, lots of fat, suited to power events - discus, shot, sumo wrestling
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Mesomorph
: an individual with wide shoulders and narrow hips, characterised by muscularity. Muscular, wedge shaped body, good for sports needing explosive strength and power such as sprinting
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Ectomorph
an individual with narrow shoulders and narrow hips, characterised by thinness. Little muscle and fat, thin and bony all round, narrow shoulders and hips, good long distance runner
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Factors that affect optimum weight
Weight: taller people are usually heavier than shorter people, Gender: men and women have different body composition, Bone structure: bodies have different frame size, Muscle girth: different sized muscle due to level of activity, Genetics
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To lose weight
Decrease calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure
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Anabolic steroids
Mimic the male sex hormone testosterone, promote bone and muscle growth, able to recover quicker and train harder,Side effects: increase risk of heart attacks and strokes, high blood pressure, increased risk of muscle injury, infertility (g), death
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Beta Blockers
Reduce heart rate and lowers blood pressure reduced stress and anxiety because of this, able to increase steadiness and precision. Side effects: nausea and diarrhoea, tiredness, depression, insomnia and nightmares
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Diuretics
Stimulate weight loss through increased fluid loss, increase the amount of urine produced, reduce the concentration of illegal substances in the urine, performers are lighter, dehydration, muscle cramps, kidney problems, nausea
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Narcotic analgesics
Depress the central nervous system and so give pain relief, allow injured players to take part with out pain, Side effects: can increase injury, loss of concentration, loss of balance, loss of coordination, emotional effects - hallucination
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Stimulants
Have an effect on the central nervous system,increase mental and/or physical alertness,able to recover quicker and train harder, insomnia, irritability, irregular heart beat, increase heart rate, high blood pressure, addiction. .
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Peptide hormones
Increase the number of red blood cells, increase muscle growth and assist recovery form injury and heavy training sessions, able to recover quicker and train harder. Side effects: EPO thickens the blood increasing the risk of heart attacks or stroke.
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Nicotine
Substance smoked in cigarettes, nicotine is a stimulant, raises alertness. Side effects: negative effect on fitness, CHD and cancer. raises blood pressure, increases the tendency for blood to clot
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Alcohol
Substance that slows down reaction time and impairs judgment, works like a sedative, able to recover quicker and train harder, Side effects: increase amount of urination causing dehydration, liver damage
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Balanced competition
Weight categories, mixed or single sex, age, handicap system, increase fairness, reduce injury
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Rules
To protect players from injury, increase the enjoyment for both players and spectators,game is fair, give the game structure
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Cardiovascular system
Blood, heart and blood vessels, strong CV system means good CV fitness
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Heart
Cardiac muscle, involuntary
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Blood vessels
Arteries, capillaries and veins
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Blood
Supplies the body with oxygen and nutrients, removes waste products
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Systolic blood pressure
The maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts
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Diastolic
The pressure of the blood during the relaxation phase between hear beats
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Ways to reduce blood pressure
check your weight, limit alcohol consumption, don’t smoke, eat little salt, avoid stress anxiety or worry, do regular exercise
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Immediate effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system
Increased heart rate, increased stroke volume, blood diverted to muscles, blood vessels dilate
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Long term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system
Heart muscle is larger and stronger, cardiac output increases, lower resting heart rate, quicker recovery rate, reduced risk of heart disease, increased number of red blood cells
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Factors that have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system
High cholesterol: raises blood pressure Recreational drugs Sedentary lifestyle and lack of exercise Stress: increases blood pressure and hear rate, can cause depression and mood swings
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Immediate effects of exercise on the respiratory system
Increased depth of breathing - increase in tidal volume, increased rate of breathing
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Long term effects of exercise on the respiratory system
Increased strength of diaphragm and intercostal muscles, greater number of alveoli, increased ability of the lungs to extract oxygen from the air, increased vital capacity
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Advantages of a strong muscular system
increase work capacity, decrease chance of injury, prevents low back pain, improves or prevents poor posture, improves athletic performance, aids rehabilitation after illness or injury
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Immediate effects of exercise on the muscular system
Muscles contract more often, blood flow to muscles increases, muscle temperature rises
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Long term effects of exercise on the muscular system
Muscles increase in size (hypertrophy), muscular endurance improves, tendons increase in strength
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Immediate effects of exercise on the skeletal system
Increased synovial fluid production, increased flexibility,
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Long term effects of exercise on the skeletal system
Increased bone density, stronger ligaments, stronger bones
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Preventing injuries
Warm up, cool down, check equipment, protective clothing/equipment
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Treating strains (muscles) and sprains (joints)
R - rest I - ice C - compression E - elevation
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Fracture
Broken or cracked bone, open or closed fracture, simple and stress fracture, fractures can occur from a blow or a severe twisting. Symptoms: pain, swelling, inability to move it, area is tender, bruising, deformities or hearing bone crack/break
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Overuse injuries
Tennis elbow (outside), golfers elbow (inside) and stress fracture
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Mix with other people, meet new people, develop team work/cooperation, stay in touch with old friends

Back

Social benefits of exercise

Card 3

Front

Prevents/relieves stress and tension, mental challenge, increase confidence/self esteem, helps individual to feel good (serotonin)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Increase fitness, to feel good, relieve stress and tension, increase self esteem and confidence, improve health, enjoyment, mental challenge

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Cooperation, competition, physical challenge, aesthetic appreciation, development of friendships and social mixing

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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Comments

Moira120

so amazing.

emily

Emily_ball99 add me on snapchat for nudes and revision notes

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