Pe Flashcards

Why fitness test?
-shows weaknesses - shows current levels of fitness - can tell if training is working -gives confidence
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what are the principles of training?
Specificity Progression Overload Reversibility Tedium
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How do you overload?
Frequency Intensity Time Type
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what are the short term effects of physical activity for the cardiovascular system?
-Rise in heart rate -stroke volume increases -blood flows faster around the body -increase in blood pressure
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what are the short term effects of physical activity for the respiration system?
-Respiratory rate and tidal volume increases -body temp rises -sweat is produced -skin becomes flushed
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what are the long term adaptions of physical activity?
-Decrease in body fat -increase rate of metabolism - heart stroke volume increases -resting heart rate decreases -increased amount of capillaries(gas exchange)
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What are the roles of the media?
to inform, educate, entertain, advertise, instruct
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what are the positive effects of the media on sport?
-promotes fitness -encourages others -publicity -increases participation -builds confidence
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what are the negative effects of the media on sport?
-causes rule changes -only certain sports covered -destroys careers -more pressure -encourages betting
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Describe fast twitch muscle fibres
They are large and white. The speed of contraction is quick and generates a large force. However it fatigues quickly because it works without oxygen. The physical activity would be for power/strength.
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Describe slow twitch muscle fibres
They are small and red. The speed of the contraction is slow and generates a small force. however it fatigues slowly because it has a good supply of oxygen. The physical activity would be CV endurance.
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The muscles that bring the bones together are the...
agonists
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The muscles which relax to allow the contraction are the..
antagonists
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Describe a concentric isotonic contration
The muscle shortens as it contracts=the ends of the muscles move closer together
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Describe a eccentric isotonic contraction
The muscle lengthens but is still under tension=the ends of the muscles move further apart
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example of concentric
bending the elbow
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example of eccentric
kicking a ball
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Describe a isometric contraction
The muscle remains the same lenght, no movement as a result=helps improve posture and strength
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example of isometric
the plank
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Describe a isokinetic contraction
these contractions occur when the speed of the contraction remains constant.
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example of isokinetic
breast stroke in water
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Why were women discouraged from participating part in exercise?
-Only men should play sports -might hurt themselves -wear respectable clothes -stay at home and look after children
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How is there still less attention on women's sport?
-some sports are still seen as men's sport -not allowed to compete together -lower profile in the media -sponsers favour mens teams -less female role models
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What needs to be changed for disability in sport?
-need more suitable entrances at sporting events -cost of taking part -sport centres dont make provisions for them -they are not aware of organisations catered for their sporting needs
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what is being done? (main objectives)
-raise profile of people with disabilities in sport -provide more opportunities -improve access -sport meets the needs -encourage involvement
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What needs to be changed for black and ethnic minorities in sport?
-Racists hold stereotypical views(sporting myths) -personal racism occurs -socioeconomics LACK OF PROVISION!
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What is being done?(main objectives)
-Raise awareness of inequality -increase number of decision makers of black and ethnic minority -increase opportunities 'kick it out'
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what are the seven risk assessment issues?
1)warm up/cool down 2) correct clothing/footwear/equipment 3) rules of the game 4) environment 5)fitness/training 6) skill levels/techniques 7)preparation
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What is the tidal volume?
the volume of air inspired or expired per breath
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What is the stroke volume?
the amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle of the heart with each beat
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Describe what happens during the atp-pc system
Atp breaks down into adp and pc. The pc molecule supplies the muscle with the energy. Phosphate creatine then attaches the pc back to the adp which results in it becoming atp again.
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What is the intensity/duration/with or without oxygen/sporting example?
-high intensity -short/10secs -without oxygen (anaerobic) -100m sprint
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Describe what happens during the lactic acid system
glycogen breaks down into atp molecules and lactic acid is the by product
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What is the intensity/duration/with or without oxygen/sporting example
-High intensity -1/2.5 mins -without (anaerobically) -400m race
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Describe what happens during the aerobic system
Glycogen is broken down with the presence of oxygen to produce energy. The by products are water and carbon dioxide
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How is the by product removed?
removed by the flow of the blood out the muscle= avoids muscle fatigue
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What is the intensity/duration/with or without oxygen/sporting example
-Low intensity -2.5mins and above -with (aerobically) -marathon runner
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What is the pivot or fulcram?
the point of movement that takes the strain of one moving away from the other e.g joints
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What is the load or resistance?
body weight or external weight
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What is the effort?
a muscular force to move the load e.g muscles and bones
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Why are goals set?
-motivate you to work harder -prepares you mentally -something to aim for -check your progress
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What is smarter?
Specific Measurable Agreed Realistic Time Exciting Recordable
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Defintion of skill
Skill is a learned ability to bring about a pre determined result with maximum efficiency and certainty and performed with minimal effort.
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What is a ability?
what we are born with/inherited
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What are basic skills?
simple things we learnt from an early age, transferable between different activities= use big muscle groups e.g jumping, walking
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What are complex skills?
They require more practice and need a higher level of coordination= not transferable=smaller muscle groups
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What is a closed skill?
not effected by external factors=follow a set pattern e.g gymnast routine
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What is a open skill?
influenced by external facors=movements adapted to the situation=alter actions e.g rugby opposition
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What is the order of information processing?
Input, decision making, output, feedback
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What is input?
This is the information you recieve from your senses (see where people are, hear the ball)
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What is decision making?
The brain interprets information by perception and helps decide on a response= brain tells muscles what to do
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What is output?
This is the action that you take as a result of your brain/s decision=if player is skilled the output is more likely to be successful
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What is feedback?
This is the response you recieve from the output. Extrinsic feedback-hearing feedback from coaches or team mates. intrinsic feedback by feeling how it felt and seeing how it went
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are the principles of training?

Back

Specificity Progression Overload Reversibility Tedium

Card 3

Front

How do you overload?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are the short term effects of physical activity for the cardiovascular system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are the short term effects of physical activity for the respiration system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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