P.E WJEC GCSE revison

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What are the Physical benefits of a healthy active lifestyle?
Improved Strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, performance, stronger bones, reduced chance of illnesses, reduced chance of injury and increased life expectancy.
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What are the social benefits of a healthy active lifestyle?
Meet new people, catch up with friends, improve teamwork and cooperation and develop leadership kills.
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What are the mental benefits of a healthy active lifestyle?
Relieve stress and tension, reduce chances of mental illnesses like depression, improve confidence and increase serotonin levels and improve mood
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What are the reasons for taking part in physical activity?
Cooperation, competition, physical challenge, aesthetic appreciation, friendship and socialising.
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What influences participation?
People: family, friends, role models. Culture: religion, age, disability, gender, race. Health: healthy, short-term illness, long term illness. Socio-economic: cost, perceived status. Resources: availability, access, time. Image: fashion, media.
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Define cardiovascular endurance.
The ability to exercise the whole body for prolonged periods of time without tiring. Health related component of fitness.
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Name and explain the test for cardiovascular endurance.
Multi-stage fitness test in which you must do 20 metre shuttle runs in time with the bleeps until the bleeps get too quick for you. Record level of drop out, 21 levels.
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Define muscular endurance
The ability of a voluntary muscle group or muscles to work for a long period of time without tiring. Health related component of fitness.
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Name and explain the test for muscular endurance.
Abdominal curl test, sit up in time with the beeps set to 20 bpm. Do as many sit ups as possible. There are 8 levels, when you stop record your score.
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Define muscular strength
applying force to overcome a resistance. Health-related component of fitness
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Name and explain the test for muscular strength
Hand grip dynamometer test. Hold hand grip at a right angle with elbow against the body. Squeeze the handgrip with maximum strength, record score.
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Define flexibility
The range of movement around a joint. Health related component of fitness.
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Name and explain the test for flexibility
Sit and reach test. Sit with legs straight in front of you and the soles of your feet against the box, reach forward as far as you can, hold for three seconds and record the distance in cm.
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Define body composition
The percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle and bone. Health related component of fitness.
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What are the three different extreme somatotypes?
endomorph, mesomorph and ectomorph
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Name and explain the test for body composition
Skinfold caliper. Take a a pinch of skin with and read the measurements with the caliper.
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Define agility
The ability to change direction quickly and accurately, combining speed, balance, power and coordination. Skill-related component of fitness
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Name and explain the test for agility.
Illinois agility test. Run around a set of cones as fast as you can, start lying on stomach. Score is based on time in seconds taken to complete course.
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Define balance
The ability to retain centre of mass above the base of support whilst stationary or moving. Skill-related component of fitness.
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Name and explain the test for balance
Stork stand test. Stand with hands on hips, place sole of right foot against the inside of your left knee (or vice versa). Rise up on toes and balance for as long as possible. Record time in seconds.
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Define coordination
The abilty to use a combination of body parts and senses at the same time to produce smooth, efficient movements, Skill-related component of fitness,
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Name and explain the test for coordination
The alternate hand wall throw. Stand 2 metres away from a wall, throw ball against wall with one hand and catch with other, repeat with alternate hands and record number of successful catches in 30 seconds.
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Define power
The combination of strength and speed of movement. Skill-related component of fitness.
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Name and explain the test for power
Standing long jump. Start behind a starting line, jump from two feet and land on two feet as far as possible. Record how far you have jumped.
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Define reaction time
The time taken to react to a stimulus. Skill-related component of fitness
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Name and explain the test for reaction time
Ruler drop test. Get someone to hold a ruler and stand with your hand in front of you with the ruler inbetween your index finger and thumb in level with 0 cms. Person drops ruler, catch as quickly as possible, repeat twice and average 3 scores.
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Define speed
the ability to move your body, or part of your body quickly. Skill-related component of fitness.
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Name and explain the test for speed
30m sprint. Run 30m as fast as possible with a rolling start. Record time in seconds.
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What safety precautions can be taken in sport?
BREAKS. Body, Rules, Equipment, Ability, Kit, Surface
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What are the principles of training?
SPORT. Specific, Progression, Overload -fitt, Reversibility and Tedium.
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What are the factors of an open skill?
Affected by environment, involve decision making, externally paced, unpedicatable
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What are the factors of a closed skill?
Not affected by the environment, habitual, self paced, few distractions, predictable.
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What are the different practice methods and what do they mean?
1. Whole - basic skill, practised as a whole. Variable - open skill, environment changes, quick decisions. Fixed - closed skills, repeated, habitual, stable environment. Part - complex skill, broken into parts
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What are the SMART targets?
Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timed.
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What is training like in the aerobic training zone?
It improves cardiovascular fitness and aerobic capacity. Can work for long periods of time
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What is training like in the anaerobic training zone?
Promotes strength, speed and power, improves body's ability to dispose of lactic acid, Short training time because of high intensity.
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What are the positives of continuous training?
Improves aerobic fitness, cardiovascular and muscular endurance, easy to monitor work rate and progression, limited equipment needed.
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What are the negatives of continuous training?
Does not develop other components of fitness, time consuming, repetitive and boring
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What are the positives of fartlek training?
develops aerobic and anaerobic systems, improves cardiovascular and muscular endurance, can be adapted to suit most sports
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What are the negatives of fartlek training?
Repetitive, boring, difficult to monitor work rate and progression, difficult to maintain work rate
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What are the positives of interval training?
Develops aerobic and anaerobic systems, adapted to specific sports, easy to monitor work rate and progression
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What are the negatives of interval training?
repetitive and boring, difficult to maintain work rate
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What are the positives of circuit training?
develops aerobic and anaerobic systems, adapted to specific sports, easy to monitor work rate and progress, doesn't always need lots of space or equipment, variety.
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What are the negatives of circuit training?
Can require lots of space and equiptment, difficult to maintain work rate.
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What are the positives of weight training?
improves muscular strength, endurance, size and power, easy to monitor work rate and progression
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What are the negatives of weight training?
can require specialist equiptment, injury from incorrect use of equiptment.
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What are the positives of cross training?
tailored to specific needs, variety, improves lots of fitness components
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What are the positives of cross training?
need to incorporate rest, lots of different exercises to learn.
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What is the body's main source of energy?
Carbohydrates
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What are the positives and negatives of fats?
Pos: good fats can help lower cholesterol, reduce blood pressure and improve health. Neg: saturated and trans fats increase cholesterol and risk of heart disease, diabetes etc.
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Why do we need proteins?
Growth and repair. They break down to amino acids in digestion and they are used to build new cells, repair tissue and produce antibodies.
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What are the functions of the skeletal system?
support, movement. protection and blood production.
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Explain and give an example of an immovable joint
Allow little or not movement e.g skull
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Explain and give an example of a partially moveable joint
allow limited range of movement e.g. spine
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Explain and give an example of a freely movable (synovial) joint
Allow free movement e.g. elbow, knee
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Name the different joint types and give an example
Hinge(elbow), Ball&socket(shoulder), pivot(top of neck), condyloid (wrist), saddle(thumb), gliding(inter-carpal joint)
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What are the different ranges of movement?
Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction, Rotation and Circumduction
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How to treat injuries
RICE. Rest, Ice, Compression, Elavation
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What is the formula for aerobic respiration
Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + CO2 + H2O
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What is glucose broken down into in anaerobic respiration
Energy and lactic acid.
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What is oxygen debt?
The oxygen that is needed after intense exercise to convert lactic acid into water products (CO2, H2O) that can be removed from the body.
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What are the short term effects of exercise on respiratory system?
number of breaths per minute increases, tidal volume increases, rate of gaseous exchange increases.
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What are the short term effects of exercise on cardiovascular system?
heart rate increases, stroke volume increases, cardiac output increases, vasodilation, vascoconstriction and blood vessels near skin open to allow heat to escape.
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What are the short term effects of exercise on muscular system?
increased muscle contratio, CO2 production increased, lactic acid created in oxygen debt, muscles fatigue, muscle temperature increases.
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What are the long term effects of exercise on the respiratory system?
intercostal muscles stronger, tidal volume increased, gaseous exchange more efficient, VO2 max increases.
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What are the long term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system?
strength improves, muscle hypertrophy increaes, bones become dense and stronger, tendons and ligaments more flexible - improved joint stability and reduced risk of osteoporosis.
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What are the long term effects of exercise on the respiratory system?
heart becomes bigger, resting stroke volume increases, maximum cardiac output increases, number of red blood cells increases, recovery time decreases, capillary density increases, arteries more elastic
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What are the health and fitness benefits of exercise in the long term?
train harder for loner, improve health and performance, reduce risk of injury, improve recovery time, improve flexibility
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What are the effects of smoking?
High blood pressure and heart rate, increased risk of heart disease, lung cancer, bronchitis etc., higher risk of complications in operations, passive smoking, reduces oxygen carrying capacity so endurance is decreased in sport.
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What are the effects of drinking alcohol?
liver damage, weight gain, high lood pressure, psychological problems, higher risk of dehydration, loss of coordination and concentration, mobility affected, calming effects so could be banned in sport, slows reaction time
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How do individuals differ?
age, gender, physical ability, physique, environment, risk and challenge, activity levels, training.
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What are the positive influences of media in sport?
example, promotes healthy lifestyle, increase revenue, encouraging variety
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What are the negative influences of media in sport?
intrusion on event, media pressure, edited coverage, altered even timings, limited attendance, biased
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Describe fast twitch muscle fibres
They are large and white. The speed of contraction is quick and generates a large force. However it fatigues quickly because it works without oxygen. The physical activity would be for power/strength.
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Describe slow twitch muscle fibres
They are small and red. The speed of the contraction is slow and generates a small force. however it fatigues slowly because it has a good supply of oxygen. The physical activity would be CV endurance.
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Describe a concentric isotonic contraction
The muscle shortens as it contracts=the ends of the muscles move closer together
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Describe a eccentric isotonic contraction
The muscle lengthens but is still under tension=the ends of the muscles move further apart
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Describe a isometric contraction
The muscle remains the same lenght, no movement as a result=helps improve posture and strength
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Describe a isokinectic contraction
these contractions occur when the speed of the contraction remains constant
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Why is there less attention in womens sports?
some sports are still seen as men's sport -not allowed to compete together -lower profile in the media -sponsers favour mens teams -less female role models
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what is tidal volume?
the volume of air inspired or expired per breath
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What is stroke volume?
What is the stroke volume? the amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle of the heart with each beat
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How is lactic acid produced?
breakdown of glycogen
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What happens during the aerobic system?
Glycogen is broken down with the presence of oxygen to produce energy. The by products are water and carbon dioxide
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What is the load or resistance?
What is the load or resistance? body weight or external weight
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What is the effort?
a muscular force to move the load e.g muscles and bones
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Why are goals set?
-motivate you to work harder -prepares you mentally -something to aim for -check your progress
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What is skill?
Defintion of skill Skill is a learned ability to bring about a pre determined result with maximum efficiency and certainty and performed with minimal effort
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What is ability?
what we are born with/inherited
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What is feedback?
This is the response you recieve from the output. Extrinsic feedback-hearing feedback from coaches or team mates. intrinsic feedback by feeling how it felt and seeing how it went
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What are the social benefits of a healthy active lifestyle?

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Meet new people, catch up with friends, improve teamwork and cooperation and develop leadership kills.

Card 3

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What are the mental benefits of a healthy active lifestyle?

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Card 4

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What are the reasons for taking part in physical activity?

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What influences participation?

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Comments

danrab12

very helpful.

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