PE Exam Prep (1)

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What are the three types of strength?
Dynamic, Explosive and Static.
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What is dynamic strength?
- The strength an individual needs to sustain their own body weight and apply force to an object. E.g A gymnast performing a pummel horse routine
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What is explosive strength?
- Muscular strength used in one short, sharp movement. E.g a long jumper leaving the take off board
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What is static strength?
- Maximum amount of strength applied to an immovable object. E.g A rugby scrum
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What is speed?
The ability to move all parts of the body as quickly as possible
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What is power?
Combination of max speed and strength.
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What is stamina?
(Endurance) The ability to maintain effort over a period of time
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What are the two types of endurance?
1. Cardiovascular 2. Muscular
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What is cardiovascular endurance?
The ability of the heart and lungs to keep supplying oxygen to the bloodstream to provide energy to continue physical movement. E.G Cross Country
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What is muscular endurance?
The ability of the muscles to keep working against resistance E.G A climber
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What is flexibility?
The ability of movement around a joint
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What is balance?
The ability to retain the centre of mass of the body above the base of support and the ability to maintain a shape or posture whilst staying level and stable
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What is co-ordination?
The ability to link all parts of movement into one efficient smooth move. The ability to control the body.
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What is agility?
The combination of flexibility and speed meaning you can move swiftly.
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What is reaction time?
How quickly the body reacts to a stimulus.
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What is timing?
The ability to produce the correct movement at optimum time.
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What are some of the physical affects that ageing has on the body?
1. Flexibility decreases 2. 02 capacity decreases 3. Reaction time decreases 4.Young children cannot cope with difficult tasks 5.Injury and disease become more common 6.Skill level increases 7. Bone brittleness causes recovery time to be longer
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What is age division and why is it important?
- Competitions is divided into set age categories to allow fair games.
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What are the 4 categories of disability?
1. Physical 2.Mental 3.Permanent 4. Temporary
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Give an example of an adapted activity for the disabled.
Wheelchair basketball
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Why are disability classifications important?
They ensure competitors are able to compete with others with a similar or the same disability to make the competition fair.
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Give an example of adapted equipment.
Footballs used by blind footballers that have ball bearings inside, which the players can hear as the ball moves.
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What are some provision examples?
1. Wider parking bays 2.Ramps 3. Disabled lifts 4. Automatic doors 5. Disabled toilets and changing areas
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What are some of the differences between men and women?
1. Women tend to be smaller 2.Women have 30% more body fat 3.Women are more flexible 4.Women can be affected by periods 5.Women have 2/3 of the strength of men
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How can culture affect participation?
1. Some cultures have single sex rules that prevent women taking part. 2. Many religions have dress codes for women which could be a potential barrier to participation 3.
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What are the three somatotypes?
1. Endomorph 2.Ectomorph 3. Mesomorph
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What is the physice of an Endomorph? And what sports are they suited to?
1. Wide hips and narrow shoulders 2.Tends to have a rounded appearance 3. Trouble losing weight 4. They are suited to sports that do not require high levels of speed. E.g Sumo Wrestling.
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What is the physice of an Mesomorph? And what sports are they suited to?
1. Wide shoulders and narrow hips 2. Tend to be muscular and have an athletic build with little body fat 3. Can gain muscle easily 4. Suited to sports that require speed, strength and power E.g Field and track events in athletics.
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What is the physice of an Ectomorph? And what sports are they suited to?
1. Narrow shoulders and hips. 2. Tend to be tall and thin with a delicate build and are lightly muscled 3. Suited to endurance events.
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How can the weather affect performance and participation?
If a performer is not use to the climate then this could throw them of their performance. Also they may not be able to train in a storm if they have to train outside
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How can pollution affect performance and participation?
Air pollution can be a health risk in physical activities
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How can altitude affect performance and participation?
Performers who regularly train at high altitude can gain the advantage of increasing the 02 capacity of the blood. However an individual not used to competing at a high altitude they will find the experience uncomfortable; leaving them breatheless
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How can humidity affect performance and participation?
High humidity levels can result in performers overheating and dehydrating. High humidity stops sweat from evaporating
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How can access affect performance and participation?
The environment in which a facility is located may make access easier or harder.
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How can the terrain affect performance and participation?
Some terrains might be difficult to access but are well suited for a particular activity such as climbing
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What is a risk assessment?
Something that makes sure that all dangers and hazards are identified before the event takes place. This to ensure the activity takes place safely.
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How can you ensure safe practice?
1. Making sure rules and regulations are followed. 2.Safety equipment is used. 3Making sure officialsare fully qualified 4.Making sure that safeguards are in place for example having first aid in place.
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What are recreative type activities?
These aren't paticullary demanding as they don't require much training for example bowls for older generations.
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Whatare competitive type activities?
Performers need to train regularly and devote a lot of time to meet the demands of the sport.
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What are socio-economic factors?
1. The amount of income someone has and the status they have in society.
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Whatis the difference between pro's and amatuers in terms on available time in training?
An amateur will have less time available for training.
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When do proffessionals get a higher level of sponsorship?
Because they have a higher profile so are better for advertising.
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What is fatigue?
A feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness brought on by extreme exertion.
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Why is fatigue bad?
A performer may not be able to carry on in the activity. And also their concentration level will decrease meaning more mistakes will be made.
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What is stress?
Stress is the bodies reaction to a demand which requires physical, mental and emotional adjustment or response;a demand that is excessive.
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Where can pressure build up from?
A large audience
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What are introverts and what activities are they suited to?
Introverts are quite shy and less outgoing people and are most likely to take place in non-team sports.
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What are extroverts and what activities are they suited to?
Extroverts are quite assertive, enjoy the company of others and seek excitment so are suited to adernalin events and team events.
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What is anxiety?
Anxiety makes a performer feel uneasy and apprehensive before and during a performance.
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How can agression be used in sport?
When agression is controlled for example in rugby then this can be positive for example by the performing exerting maximum power in a scrum.
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What is bad about agression in sport?
If it is not controlled then this could lead to a dangerous situation.
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Why is anxiety and stress bad?
It can decrease motivation if stress and axiety is too high.
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What are arousal levels?
Causes the performer to be more alert and focused due to excitment.
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How does bordeom reduce performance?
The performer will think the activity is tedious .
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Why is negative feedback bad?
It increases stress levels.
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What are some precautions?
1. Correct technique 2. Safe practice such as no jewellery. 3. Appropriate clothing 4. Saftey equipment should be worn. 5. Rules are followed 6. Appropriate cool downs and warm ups.
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What are impact injuries?
This are caused by contact. From a player, surface or object.
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What are internal injuries?
This are things such as stress fractures. Strains and sprains.
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What is respiration?
The process of gaseous exchange in which oxygen is inspired from the air and is exchanged with carbon dioxide before it is then expired.
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What is the first stage of gaseous exchange?
1. Oxygen that has been breathed in passes through the alveoli air sacs and into the red blood cells.
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What is the secound stage of gaseous exchange?
2. The oxygen combines with the haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin
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What is the third stage of gaseous exchange?
3. At the same time an enzyme in the red blood cell and breaks down the carbon dioxide in the blood and turns it into gas.
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What is the fourth stage of gaseous exchange?
4. The carbon dioxide then passes through the alveoli and is finally breathed out via the lungs.
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What is the equation for Aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen -> (ENERGY) + Carbon Dioxide + Water
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When does aerobic respiration occur during exercise?
It is used when the body is working for a long period of time for example in a marathon.
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What is the equation for Anaerobic respiration?
Glucose -> (ENERGY) + Lactic Acid
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When does anaerobic respiration occur during exercise?
It is used when the body works without sufficient oxygen being supplied to the muscles. For example in a 100m sprint.
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What are the 2 functions of the blood?
1.Transports O2 around the blood via red blood cells. 2. Assists with body temperature control.
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What is oxygen debt?
When the body runs out of oxygen and so the glycogen stores are used as an energy source. Lactic acid is then produced, it is a mild poison that is then stored in the working muscles. During recovery, oxygen debt must be repaid - breathing.
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What are some factors of the recovery process?
1. Deep breathes to allow waste products to be removed. 2. Perspiration occurs as a form of temp control. 3.An affective cool down allows lactic to disperse safely.
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What is the first stage of the circulatory system?
1. Blood enters the right atrium. At this point it is dark without little oxygen and mostly CO2
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What is the second stage of the circulatory system?
2. The right atrium pumps the blood into the right ventricle.
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What is the third stage of the circulatory system?
3. The right ventricle pumps the blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs where oxygen is picked up and the carbon dioxide is deposited.
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What is the fourth stage of the circulatory system?
4. From the lungs the blood is returned to the left atrium through the pulmonary vein.
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What is the 5th stage of the circulatory system?
5.The left atrium pumps the blood into the left ventricle and the blood then leaves here through the aorta to be distributed to the rest of the body.
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What are the three types of blood vessels?
Arteries, veins and capillaries
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What are the arteries and what do they do?
Arteries have thick walls and carry oxygenated blood at a high pressure away from the heart.
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What are veins and what do they do?
They carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Veins have valves to ensure the blood is not able to flow backwards.
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What are capillaries and what do they do?
They are microscopic vessels that allow carbon dioxide, oxygen and other waste products to pass through their thin walls for going in and out of cells
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What is leisure?
This is the free time that someone has. There is more free time nowadays due to the increase the use of technology.
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What is passive and active leisure?
Passive leisure are things such as going to the cinema whereas active leisure are things such as swimming or yoga.
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What is physical recreation?
When individuals take pat in activities for intrinsic rewards (Satisfaction)
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What is outdoor recreation?
When individuals take part in an activity which includes a challenge. E.g climbing
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What does having good health mean?
It is the state of complete physical, mental and social well being , not merely just the absence of disease or infirmity.
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What is fitness?
The capability of the body to be able to meet daily demands made upon it without stress.
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What is general fitness?
- A level of fitness suitable for a club standard performer
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What is specific fitness?
- The level of fitness required for an international performer
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Why is regular exercise important?
1. Helps provide strength and stamina for everyday activities. 2. Helps maintain basic levels of fitness 3. Helps enable the individual to maintain a good level of exercise.
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What are the effects of exercise?
1. Reddening of skin 2. Breathing/heart rate increases. 3. Body temp increases/sweating 4.Tiredness/fatigue of muscles
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What are the three main function of the skeletal system?
1. Support 2. Movement 3. Protection
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Movement occurs at joints. What are the 3 types?
1.Ball and socket 2. Hinge 3. Pivot
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What are the 5 types of movement found at a joint?
1.Adduction-Movement towards the mid-line of the body 2.Abduction-Movement away from the mid-line of the body 3.Extension-Straightening limbs at a joint 4.Flexion-Bending the limbs at a joint 5.Rotation-A circular movement around a fixed point.
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What are ligaments?
Bands of fibres that are attached to the bones and link the joints together
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What are tendons?
Very strong cords that join the muscle to a bone.
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What is the agnostic and the antagonistic muscles?
Agnostic is the prime mover which initially contracts to perform a movement. Antagonistic is the muscle which relaxes to allow a movement to take place.
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What does weight training do?
1. Improves muscle tone 2. Increases muscular endurance 3. Develops muscle size 4. Assists recovery after an injury
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How do you improve muscle tone?
Use lights weights and do a high number of reps for a set of about 3
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How do you improve muscle size and strength?
Use heavy weights for a low amount of reps and and large umber of sets.
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What are the disadvantages of weight training?
1. Equipment can be quite expensive 2. A training partner is needed to assist.
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What are the advantages of circuit training?
1. Equipment is basic/ sometimes not even needed. 2. Various fitness components can be improved. 3. Wide range of exercises reduces boredom factor 4. Can be tailored to an individual 5. Aerobic an anaerobic activities can be included.
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What are the disadvantages of circuit training?
1. Very difficult to do alone 2. Takes a long time to set up and run.
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What is fartlek training?
It is a form of continuous training alternating walking, jogging and running.
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What is interval training?
Period of work followed by periods of rest.
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What are the advantages of interval training?
1. Does not require specialist equipment 2. Allows individuals to train on their own 3. Suited to an-aerobic activities
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What are the disadvantages of interval training?
It is very specific and not related to general fitness.
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What is continuous training?
Designed to improve endurance as it keeps the heart and pulse rate high throughout an extended period.
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What are the advantages of continuous training?
1. Easy to set up 2. Very specific outcomes
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What are the disadvantages of continuous training?
1. Very specific 2. Not suitable for general training.
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What is specificity?
A particular activity you use to build up or improve body systems or skills
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What is progression?
Gradualling increasing amount of training
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What is overload? What does FIT mean?
Making your body work harder. F=FREQUENCY I=INTENSITY T=TIME
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What is reversibility?
The loss of positive effects if you stop training.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is dynamic strength?


- The strength an individual needs to sustain their own body weight and apply force to an object. E.g A gymnast performing a pummel horse routine

Card 3


What is explosive strength?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is static strength?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is speed?


Preview of the front of card 5
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