PE Definitions AQA

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  • Created by: esheen
  • Created on: 10-10-18 16:05
Ability
Inherited, stable traits that determine an individual’s potential to learn or acquire a skill.
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Adaptability
The potential to change with ease.
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Adrenaline
Natural hormone released to speed heart rate up.
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Aerobic
With oxygen. When exercise is not too fast and is steady, the heart can supply all the oxygen that the working muscles need.
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Aerobic Training Zone
The aerobic training zone allows the aerobic system to be trained. To define aerobic training zone: 1. Calculate maximum heart rate (220 bpm) minus age: 220-age
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Aggression
A deliberate intent to harm or injure another person, which can be physical or mental (see direct and indirect aggression).
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Agility
The ability to move and change direction quickly (at speed) whilst maintaining control.
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Agonist
Muscle or group responsible for the movement.
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Altitude
A geographical area (of land) which is over 2,000 m above sea level.
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Altitude Training
Training at altitude where there is less oxygen. The body adapts by making more red blood cells to carry oxygen. The additional oxygen carrying red blood cells is an advantage for endurance athletes returning to sea level to compete.
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Altitude sickness
Nausea caused by training at altitude.
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Alveoli
Air sacs in the lungs.
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Amateur
This term defines someone who:  takes part in an activity as a hobby, rather than for financial gain, has another main job outside of sport, takes part for fun, could be at a lower level.
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Anabolic Steroids
Artificially produced male hormones mimicking testosterone. They promote muscle and bone growth, and reduce recovery time. Often used by power athletes, eg sprinters.
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Anaerobic
Without oxygen. When exercise duration is short and at high intensity, the heart and lungs cannot supply blood and oxygen to muscles as fast as the respiring cells need them.
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Antagonist
Acts to produce the opposite action to the agonist. They work in antagonistic pairs.
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Arousal
A physical and mental (physiological and psychological) state of alertness/readiness, varying from deep sleep to intense excitement/alertness.
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Articulating Bones
Where two or more bones meet to allow movement at a joint.
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Axis
Imaginary line through the body around which it rotates. Types of axis: Longitudinal or vertical - head to toe, Transverse - through the hips, Sagittal - through the belly button.
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Backflow
The flowing backwards of blood. Valves in the veins prevent this from happening.
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Balance
The maintenance of the centre of mass over the base of support. Reference can be made to whilst static (still) or dynamic (whilst moving).
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Balanced Diet
It is defined as eating: the right amount (for energy expended), the right amount of calories, according to how much you exercise, different food types to provide suitable nutrients, vitamins and minerals.
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Beta Blockers
Drugs that are used to steady nerves by controlling heart rate. They have a calming and relaxing effect.
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(Blood) doping`
Defined by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as the misuse of techniques and/or substances to increase one's red blood cell count.
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Blood pressure
The pressure that blood is under. Types of pressure: Systolic- when the heart is contracting, diastolic- when the heart is relaxed.
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Body composition
The percentage of body weight which is fat and non-fat (muscle and bone).
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Calorie
A unit which measures heat or energy production in the body, normally expressed as Kcal.
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carbohydrate
The body's preferred energy source.
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Cardiac cycle
The process of the heart going through the stages of systole and diastole in the ventricles and atria.
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Cardiac output
The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute or stroke volume x heart rate.
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Cardio-vascular endurance (aerobic power)
The ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the working muscles.
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Circuit Training
A series of exercise stations whereby periods of work are interspersed with periods of rest.
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Closed Season
Post (transition). It is defined as: period of rest to recouperate, players doing gentle aerobic fitness to maintain general fitness.
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Closed Skill
A skill which is not affected by the environment or performers within it. The skill tends to be done the same way each time.
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Commercialisation
To manage or exploit (an organisation, activity, etc) in a way designed to make a profit.
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Coordination
The ability to use different (two or more) parts of the body together, smoothly and efficiently.
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Competition Season (peak)
It is defined as: playing season, taking part in matches every week, maintenance of fitness related to the activity but not too much training as it may cause fatigue, which could decrease performance.
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Continuous training
Involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. It improves cardio- vascular fitness. Sometimes referred to as a steady state training.
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Contract to compete
Unwritten agreement to follow and abide by the written and unwritten rules.
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Deep breathing
Slow, deep breaths whilst relaxed.
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Dehydration
Excessive loss of body water interrupting the function of the body.
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Hydration
Having enough water to enable normal functioning of the body.
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Rehydration
Consuming water to restore hydration.
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Direct Aggression
Aggressive act which involves physical contact with others, eg a punch.
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Diuretic Drugs
Drugs that remove fluid from the body, elevating the rate of bodily urine excretion.
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Delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS)
The pain felt in the muscles the day after exercise.
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Ectomorph
A somatotype characterised by being tall and thin. Individuals with narrow shoulders and narrow hips.
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Embolism
Blockage of blood vessel.
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Endomorph
A somatotype, characterised by a pear shaped body/fatness. Individuals with wide hips and narrow shoulders.
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Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
Sometimes referred to as oxygen debt (now an outdated term), EPOC refers to the amount of oxygen needed to recover after exercise. EPOC enables lactic acid to be converted to glucose, carbon dioxide and water (using oxygen).
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Erythropoietin (EPO)
A type of peptide hormone that increases the red blood cell count.
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Etiquette
A convention or unwritten rule in an activity. It is not an enforceable rule but it is usually observed.
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Expire
Breath Out.
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Externally-Pased Skill
The skill that is started because of an external factor. The speed, rate or pace of the skill is controlled by external factors, eg an opponent.
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Extrinsic Feedback
Received from outside of the performer, eg from a coach. See Kinaesthetic feedback for a comparison.
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Extrovert
Sociable, active, talkative, out-going personality type usually associated with team sports players.
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Fartlek Training
Swedish for ‘speed play’. Periods of fast work with intermittent periods of slower work. Often used in running, ie sprint, jog, walk, jog, sprint, etc.
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Fatigue
Either physical or mental, fatigue is a feeling of extreme or severe tiredness due to a build-up of lactic acid or working for long periods of time.
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Feedback
Information a performer receives about their performance. Feedback can be given during and/or after performance.
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Fine Movement (Skill Classification)
Small and precise movement, showing high levels of accuracy and coordination. It involves the use of a small group of muscles.
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Fitness
The ability to meet/cope with the demands of the environment.
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FITT is used to increase the amount of work the body does, in order to achieve overload (see SPORT). FITT stands for:
FITT is used to increase the amount of work the body does, in order to achieve overload (see SPORT). FITT stands for: Frequency-how often you train, Intensity-how hard you train, Time-length of the training session, Type-the specific method.
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Flexibility
The range of movements possible at a joint.
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Gamesmanship
Attempting to gain an advantage by stretching the rules to their limit, eg time wasting.
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Goal Setting (SMART targets)
Specific to demands of the sport/ muscles used, Measurable when they are met, Accepted by performer and others involved, Realistic,Timebound over a period of time.
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Performance Goals
Personal standards to be achieved. Performers compare themselves against what they have already done or suggest what they are going to do. There is no comparison with other performers.
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Outcome Goals
Focus on end result/winning.
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Gross Movement (Skill Clasification)
Using large muscle groups to perform big, strong, powerful movements.
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Guidance
A method to convey information to a performer. Guidance methods: Visual (seeing), verbal (hearing, Manual (assist movement- physical), Mechanical (use of aids/objects).
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Haemoglobin
The substance in the red blood cells which transports oxygen (as oxyhaemoglobin) and carbon dioxide.
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Health
A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (as per the World Health Organisation- WHO). Ill health refers to being in a state of poor physical, mental and/or social well- being.
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Heart Attack
It occurs when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked.
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Heart Chambers
They include the right and left atria and ventricles.
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Heart Rate
The number of times the heart beats (usually measured per minute).
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High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)
It’s an exercise strategy alternating periods of short intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods (see Interval training).
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Hooliganism
Disorderly, aggressive and often violent behaviour by spectators at sporting events.
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Home Field Advantage
Gaining an advantage in a sporting event from being in familiar surroundings, with the majority of the spectators supporting you.
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Hypertension
High blood pressure in the arteries.
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Hypertrophy
The enlargement of an organ or tissue from the increase in the size of its cells.
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Indirect Aggression
Aggression which does not involve physical contact. The aggression is taken out on an object to gain advantage, eg hitting a tennis ball hard during a rally.
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Information Processing
Making decisions. Gathering data from the display (senses), prioritising the most important stimuli to make a suitable decision.
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Inspire
Breath In.
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Interval Training
Periods of training/work that are followed by periods of rest, eg work, rest, work, rest (see High intensity interval training).
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Introvert
A quiet, passive, reserved, shy personality type, usually associated with individual sports performance.
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Isometric Contraction
Muscle contraction where the length of the muscle does not alter. The contraction is constant, ie pushing against a load.
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Isotonic Contraction
Muscle contraction that results in limb movement:  concentric contraction - shortening of the muscle,  eccentric contraction - lengthening of the muscle.
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Kinaesthetic/ Intrinsic Feedback
It's a type of intrinsic feedback, received via receptors in the muscles. Sensations that are felt by the performer, providing information from movement.
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Level Playing Field
The same for all competitors.
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Lever
A rigid bar (bone) that turns about an axis to create movement. The force to move the lever comes from the muscle(s). Each lever contains:  a fulcrum - fixed point, effort (from the muscle(s) to move it),  load/resistance (from gravity).
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Masculinity
Displaying masculine (male) stereotypical behaviour.
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Maximum Heart Rate
Calculated by: 220-age
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Mechanical Advantage
The efficiency of a working lever, calculated by: effort ÷ weight (resistance) arm.
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Media
Diversified technologies which act as the main means of mass communication. These include: printed media (eg newspapers), broadcast media (eg TV and radio), internet/social media (eg Facebook), outdoor media (eg billboards).
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Mental Health and Wellbeing
A state of well-being in which every individual realises his/her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community (as per WHO).
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Mental Rehearsal/ Visualisation/ Imagery
Cognitive relaxation techniques involving control of mental thoughts and imagining positive outcomes.
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Mesomorph
A somatotype, characterised by a muscular appearance. Individuals with wide shoulders and narrow hips.
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Minerals
Inorganic substances which assist the body with many of its functions, eg bone formation (Calcium).
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Intrinsic Motivation
The drive that comes from within (eg for pride, satisfaction, a sense of accomplishment, self-worth)
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Extrinsic Motivation
The drive to perform well or to win in order to gain external rewards (eg prizes, money, praise).
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Flexion and Extension
flexion – decrease in the angle of the bones at a joint, extension – increasing the angle of bones at a joint.
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Abduction and Adduction
abduction – movement away from the midline of the body,  adduction – movement towards the midline of the body.
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Rotation
Movement around an axis.
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Plantar flexion and Dorsi flexion
 plantar flexion – pointing the toes at the ankle/increasing the ankle angle,  dorsi flexion – toes up at the ankle/decreasing the ankle angle.
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Muscular Endurance
Ability of a muscle or muscle group to undergo repeated contractions, avoiding fatigue.
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Narcotic Analgesic
Drugs that can be used to reduce the feeling of pain.
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Nutrition
The intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition is an adequate, well balanced diet, combined with regular physical activity.
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Obese
A term used to describe people with a large fat content, caused by an imbalance of calories consumed to energy expenditure. A body mass index (BMI) of over 30 or over 20% above standard weight for height ratio.
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One rep max
The maximal amount that can be lifted in one repetition by a muscle/group of muscles (with the correct technique).
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Open Skill
A skill which is performed in a certain way to deal with a changing or unstable environment, eg to outwit an opponent.
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Peptide Hormones
Drugs that stimulate the production of naturally occurring hormones (eg EPO), which increase red blood cell count/oxygen carrying capacity.
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Physical Health and Wellbeing
All body systems working well, free from illness and injury. Ability to carry out everyday tasks. It works in conjunction with social and mental health.
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Physiology
Study of how our cells, muscles and organs work together, and how they interact.
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Planes
Imaginary lines depicting the direction of movement. Types of planes: sagittal - forwards and backwards, frontal - left or right, transverse - rotation around the longitudinal axis.
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Positive Self-Talk
Developing cognitive positive thoughts about your own performance.
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Post Season (transition)
Period of rest/active recovery/light aerobic work after the competition period.
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Power/ Explosive Strength
The product of strength and speed, ie strength x speed.
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Pre-Season (preparation)
It is defined as: period leading up to competition, usually using continuous/fartlek/interval training sessions to increase aerobic fitness, weight training to build up strength and muscular endurance, developing techniques specific to the sport in
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Principles Of Overload
Frequency, intensity, time and type (see FITT).
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Principles Of Training
Specificity, progressive overload, reversibility and tedium (see SPORT).
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Prime Mover (agonist)
Muscle or muscle group responsible for the movement.
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Pulse Raiser
Any activity that raises heart rate. Usually as part of a warm up, eg light jog.
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Qualitative
More of a subjective than an objective appraisal. Involving opinions relating to the quality of a performance rather than the quantity (eg score, placing, number).
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Quantitative
A measurement which can be quantified as a number, eg time in seconds or goals scored. There is no opinion expressed (qualitative). It is a fact.
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Reaction Time
The time taken to initiate a response to a stimulus, ie the time from the initiation of the stimulus (eg starting gun in 100 m) to starting to initiate a response (eg starting to move out of the blocks in 100 m).
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Recovery
Time required to repair the damage to the body caused by training or competition.
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Reliability
Relating to the consistency and repeatability of a test (ie to produce same or similar scores).
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Repetitions
The number of times an individual action is performed. A set is a group of repetitions.
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Residual Volume
Volume of air left in the lungs after maximal expiration.
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Role Model
A person looked to by others as an example to be imitated.
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Season
A period of time during which competition takes place or training seasons, dividing the year up into sectional parts for pre-determined benefits.
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Sedentary Lifestyle
A lifestyle with irregular or no physical activity.
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Self-Paced Skill
The skill is started when the performer decides to start it. The speed, rate or pace of the skill is controlled by the performer.
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Skeletal System
Skeletal system provides a framework of bones for movement, in conjunction with the muscular system.
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Skill
A learned action/learned behaviour with the intention of bringing about pre- determined results, with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of time and energy.
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Skill Classificaton
Categorisation of sporting skills in accordance with set continua. These include: simple/complex continua, open/closed continua, self-paced/externally-paced continua, gross/fine continua.
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Social Health and Wellbeing
Basic human needs are being met (food, shelter and clothing). The individual has friendship and support, some value in society, is socially active and has little stress in social circumstances. It works in conjunction with physical and mental health.
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