PDHPE core 2

  • Created by: anntay
  • Created on: 22-05-15 03:04
4 main functions of the skeletal system
*it supports the body, giving it shape, form and posture *it provides protection for internal organs e.g. cranium protects brain *source of supply of red blood cells, produces blood platelets and a store for minerals *allows movement
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Superior, inferior, medial, lateral
up, down, middle, outside
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Anterior, posterior, proximal, distal
front, back, upper limbs, lower limbs
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4 major types of bones
long, short, flat and irregular
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Long Bones are..
longer than they are wide, they function as levers and allow limbs to make a range of large and powerful movements. They are weight bearers. #humerous, femur, radius, tibia and phalanges
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Short bones...
allow the body to perform fine motor movements and health absorb heavy impacts. They have a shorter axis and are found in small spaces such as the wrist. #carpals, tarsals, patella
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Flat bones are...
usually broad in shape and have a smooth surface allowing a large area for muscle attachment #scapula, ribs, skull, sternum
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Irregular bones...
can not be classified into categories because of their complex and non-uniform shape #vertebrae, facial bones
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The axial system
consists of the bones which lie around the longitudinal axis of the body e.g skull and trunk of body
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The appendicular system
consist of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the shoulder and pelvic girdles which connect the extremities to the axial skeleton
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Joints occurr where....
one or more bones meet
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Fibrous or immovable joints occur where...
bone ends are joined by strong, short bands or fibrous tissue. This type does not allow any movement to occur. Example: cranium
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What joint is this? (fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial)
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Cartilaginous or slightly moveable joints..
have limited movement. The joints are held together by straps called ligaments and joined by pads of gristly catilage. Example: the joints between most vertebrae
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What joint is this? (fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial)
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Synovial or freely moveable joints...
allow for a range of movement. These include hinge joints (knee & elbow) and ball and socket joints (hip & shoulders). Synovial joints are made possible with the use of tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and synovial fluid. Examples: shoulder, elbow, hip
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What joint is this? (fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial)
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A freely movable joint has these parts: (part 1)
*joint capsule- holds bone in place and protects joint *synovial membrane- capsule lining oozes liquid *joint cavity- filled with synovial fluid, allowing bones to move more easily
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A freely movable joint has these parts: (part 2)
*cartilage- covers bones to stop them knocking together *ligaments- holds bones together and keeps them in place
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Ligaments are...
fibrous bands that connect bones to bones. These maintain stability in the joint and allow movement
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Cartilage ...
protects bones and stops them knocking together. It forms a gristly cushion at cartilaginous joints (e.g. between vertebrae) and a smooth slipperly coat on ends of bones at synovial joints
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are tough, inelastic cords of tissue that attach muscle to bone. Joints are futher strengthened by muscle tendons that extend across the joint and assist ligament to hold the joint closed.
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Synovial Fluid...
is a lubricant that keeps the joints moist and nourishes the cartilage to enable easy movement
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Hyaline cartilage...
while synovial fluid acts as a cushion between the articulating surfaces of the bones, they are also covered with a layer of smooth, shiny cartilage that allows the bones to move freely over each other. Hyaline cartilage recieves nourishment via the
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Hyaline cartilage part 2...
synovial fluid, and the cartilage is thicker in the leg joints, where there is greater weight bearing.
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The main components of blood are:
*red blood cells *white blood cells *plasma *platelets
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The circulatory or cardiovascular system is....
a network that distributes blood containing oxygen and nutrients and collects waste. It comprises the heart, arteries, blood and veins.
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The heart is enclosed in a sac called the...
pericardium, which allows the heart to move without friction as it beats within the chest cavity
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The walls of the heart are composed of a thick layer called the....
myocardium. This is made up of special heart muscle (cardiac muscle) and is responsible for the heart's ability to contract and punp blood.
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The bicuspid valve is between the...
left atrium and ventricle
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The tricuspid valve is between the...
right atrium and ventricle (tri time is the right time)
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carry blood away from the heart. To withstand great pressure from the pumping of the heart, arteries have thick, strong, elastic walls composed of smooth muscle fibres.
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Have think walls composed of a single cell, which allow the nutrients and oxygen to pass into the cell, and carbon dioxide and wastes to pass out.
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Pressure in the veins is low. Veins have thinner and less-elastic walls. The contraction of skeletal muscles assist in the return of blood in the veins. Valves are arranged so blood can flow only one way through them.
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Hinge joint:
This joint is found were a bone end with a concave shape joins a bone end with a convex shape. This joint allows only back-and-forth movement, such as bending and straightening e.g. at the knee, ankle and elbow. It is uniaxial.
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Pivot joint:
This joint is found where a cylindrical body point rotates within a ring composed of bone and ligament. The pivot allows rotation only (uniaxial) e.g. between the radius and the humerus.
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Gliding (plane) joint:
This joint occurs where two bones with flat surfaces slide on each other. Such joints permit side-to-side and back-and-fourth movement (biaxial) e.g. between the carpals, between the tarsals, and between the ribs and the thoracic vertebrae.
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Saddle joint:
This joint is found where two saddle-shaped bony surfaces join at right angles to each other. It permits side-to-side and back-and-fourth movement (biaxial) e.g. at the joint between the carpal and the metacarpal bones of the thumb.
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Ball and socket joint:
This joint occurs where the head, or ball, of one bone fits into the cup or socket of another bone. This joint permits side-to-side, back-and-fourth and rotational movement (and is therefore triaxial). e.g. the hip and the shoulder joint
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This is a small ball and socket joint that is oval in shape. This joint allows side-to-side and back-and-fourth movement (biaxial). Such joints occur between the carpals and the radius, and between the metacarpal (wrist) and the phalange
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What joint is this?
A sliding joint
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What joint is this?
A hinge joint
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What joint is this?
A ball-and-socket joint
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What joint is this?
A pivot joint
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What joint is this?
A saddle joint
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What joint is this?
A ellipsoid joint
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Blood flow around the heart
*inferior and superior vena cava *right atrium *tricuspid valve *right ventricle *pulmonary artery *pulmonary vein *left atrium *bicuspid valve *left ventricle *aorta *body
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Blood vessels
heart-> arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries/muscles/organs -> venules -> veins -> heart
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Name the bones
Cranium, maxialla, mandible, clavicle, scapula, rib cage, sternum, humerous, vertabral column, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, pelvis, coccyx, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
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Types of contractions
isometric, isotonic, concentric, eccentric
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contraction occurs when the muscle fibres are activated and develop force, but the muscle length doesn't change (no movement)
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when there is muscle movement lengthening or shortening (movement)
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Concentric (isotonic)
during a contraction, the muscle shortens, causing movement at the joint.
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Eccentric (isotonic)
contraction occurs when the muscle lengthens while under tension.
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Joint structure and joint actions
extension, flexion, abduction, adduction, inversion, eversion, rotation, circumduction, pronation, supination, dorsiflexion, plantarflexion
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straightening or increasing the angle between a joint
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Bending or decreasing the angle between a joint
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Moving a body part away from the midline of the body
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Moving a body part towards the midline of the body
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Rotation of the foot so that the sole faces inwards
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Rotation of the foot so that the sole faces outwards
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Moving a body part around its axis
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Describes the circular movements of a joint. It includes all other movements
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Rotation of the hand so that the pam faces downwards
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Rotation of the hand so that the palm faces upwards
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Movement of the top of the foot (toes) towards the lower leg
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Movement of the top of the foot (toes) away from the lower leg
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what does FITT stand for?
Frequencey, intensity, time and type.
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What are the 5 health related components?
Muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition
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What are the 6 skill related components?
Muscular power, agility, balance, co-ordination, speed and reaction time.
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Prime mover muscle- causes the action
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Muscle which relaxes (lengthens) to allow the prime mover to contract
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The anterior view of the muscles:
trapezius, deltoids, pectoralis major, biceps brachii, retus abdominis, external obliques, quadriceps, tibialis anterior
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The posterior view of the muscles:
Trapezius, deltoids, triceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, gluteus maximus, hamstrings, gastrocnemius
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What is blood pressure measure on?
sphygmomanometer expressed as systole/diastole e.g 120/80
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Two readings of blood pressure
*Systolic pressure- the pressure of the blood forced into the arties during left ventricle contraction *Diastolic pressure- the pressure of the blood in the arteries during left ventricle relaxation
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What is hypertension?
Hyptertension (high blood pressure) is when either systolic or diastolic readings are constantly high.
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What is the smallest conducting respiratory passages?
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What is the food passageway posterior to the trachea?
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Validity in relation to sport
Validity is whether the test actually measure what they set out to e.g. trying to measure muscular endurance, but making the athlete go for a run. That's not valid.
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Reliability in relation to sport
A test is considered reliable if the results are consistent and reproducible over time. e.g. cutting over 20cm of the beep test one time is not reliable.
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Subjective in relation to sport
Based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes or opinions.
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Objective in relation to sport
Not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts.
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Aerobic sports
Aerobic means with oxygen. It is a longer duration sport with a low to medium intensity. e.g. soccer, cross country
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Anaerobic sports
Anaerobic means without oxygen. It is a short duration at a very high intensity. e.g. jumping, throwing, sprint
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What is the FITT principle?
The principle provides guidelines for individuals who aim to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and some forms of resistance training. It ensures a program has the quantity and quality of movement necessary to produce the desired physical improvement.
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Heart Rate
Heart rate is the number of times your heart beats each minute. Measured by taking your pulse. Heart rate increases when the exercise beings and reaches a steady rate during sustained moderate activity.
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Ventilation Rate
Ventilation rate refers to our breathing rate and therfore how much oxygen we consume (how much air is breathed in and out in a minute). Ventilation rate increases during exercise to deliver more oxygen to muscles.
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Stroke Volume
stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by the heart each beat and is measured in millilitres. Stroke volume significantly increases in response to exercise.
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Cardiac Output (Q)
Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by your heart each minute and is expressed in litres/minute. It can therefore be calculated using the following formula: cardiac output= stroke volume x heart rate. Cardiac output increases with exercise.
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The structure of long bones consist of:
Periosteum, compact bone, cancellous bone (spongy bone), hyaline cartilage, growth plate and marrow cavity
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What is the Periosteum
It is the outside covering of the bone that allows for the attachment of ligaments and tendons.
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What is Compact Bone?
Compact bone is located in the diaphysis or length of the bone. It provides strength and support to the bone, and contains calcium and phosphorus
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What is Cancellous Bone (Spongy Bone)?
Cancellous Bone is located in the eiphysis, or ends of the bone. It consists of many spaces, making it look honeycomb in appearance. The ends of the bone flare out at the joint, increasing surface area and stability of the joint.
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What is Cancellous Bone (Spongy Bone (Part 2)) ?
The spaces are filled with red bone marrow where red blood cells and some white blood cells are made.
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What is Hyaline Cartilage?
It is the white, smooth and slippery substance found on the end of the bones. This protects the end of bones and reduces friction in the joint.
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What is the Growth Plate?
This is found where the diaphysis and epiphysis meet. The growth plate is where bone growth in length occurs. When the bone reaches maturity, the growth plate fuses to form the epiphyseal line.
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What is the marrow cavity?
The cavity is found in the diaphysis. The marrow cavity contains yellow bone marrow, consisting of blood vessels, fat cells and immature white blood cells. It is able to produce red blood cells during heavy bleeding.
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What do muscle do?
Muscles provide movement, stabilization (posture and structure) and generate heat.
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There are three different types of muscle, which differ in structure, location and type of control. These are:
Skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
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What is the Skeletal Muscle?
Skeletal Muscle is attached to the skeleton allowing movement. It can be made to contract and relax as a voluntary muscle. Under a microscope it is striated in appearance.
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What is Cardiac muscle?
Cardiac muscle forms most of the heart and is also striated. It is an involuntary muscle. Contraction of cardiac muscle is controlled by a pacemaker system in the heart.
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What is Smooth Muscle?
Smooth muscle is located in the walls of hollow internal structures such as the stomach, intestines, blood vessels and bronchioles. This muscle is non-striated and under involuntary control
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How do muscles provide movement?
when muscles contract and shorten they produce movement
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Functions of muscle tissue:
By contraction (either sustained (all the time) or phasic (at certain times)) and relaxation, muscle tissue fulfills three functions: movement, stabilisation, and heat generation
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Movement (functions of muscle tissue):
Through the attachment to bones, skeletal muscles can contract to produce movement, or relax to allow movement to occur. Although less obvious, cardiac muscle contracts and relaxes to produce movement, the heart beat. Smooth muscle will produce
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Movement (part 2):
movement to transmit foodstuffs through the gastro-intestinal tract.
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Stabilisation (functions of muscle tissue):
Through sustained contractions, skeletal muscle can maintain the body in a stable position, for example standing and sitting.
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Heat generation (functions of muscle tissue):
Contraction of skeletal muscle may perform work, a by-product of which is heat, which is used to maintain body temperature. It is thought that up to 85% of body heat is generated by skeletal muscle contractions.
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What are postural muscles?
Certain muscles are constantly being activated to contract isometrically to give us support and posture. Without these we would have no form and consequently would collapse e.g. abdominal, trapezius, quadriceps, and hamstrings
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What are phasic muscles?
Are those skeletal muscles often involved in repetitive movement patterns or phasic movement, such as walking, running and swimming e.g. gluteals, gastrocnemius, hamstrings, etc.
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Describe muscle attachments:
All muscles are attached to bones by tendons. The fixed or less movable attachment point is called the origin. The movable end of the muscle is called the insertion. The main body of the muscle is the belly and the end of the muscle belly attaching
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Describe muscle attachments 2:
to the tendon is the head of the muscle
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Muscle is comprised of thousands of muscle fibres arranged in bundles that run along the length of the muscle. All skeletal muscle is comprised of a belly, made up of these bundles of fibres and tendons which attach the muscle to bones.
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Muscle fibre types- Slow-twitch fibres
They are red as they carry oxygen. They contract slowly, but can contract repeatedly for prolonged periods. These are endurance fibres, suited to aerobic work. Slow-twitch fibres are much smaller than fast twitch fibres and develop less force.
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Muscle fibre types- Fast-twitch fibres
They are white in colour. They contract rapidly, but are easily exhausted. These are speed/strength fibres,suited to anaerobic work. Fast-twitch fibres are larger than slow-twitch fibres and exert greater force.
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Can you change your ratio of fast and slow twitch fibres?
The proportion of fast to slow twitch is decided at birth. Muscle fibres cannot be changed by training. What can be changed is the size of the muscle fibre and the capacities of each fibre
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What is respiration?
Respiration is the process by which the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. Glucose (from food) + Oxygen (O2 breathed in) -> Carbon dioxide (CO2 breathed out) + energy + water
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What is the respiratory system responsible for?
*Uptake of oxygen *transfer of oxygen into blood *removal of carbon dioxide and other waste products
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What is lung ventilation?
Lung ventilation is the movement of air in and out of the lungs
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What is inspiration?
Inspiration is air movement from the atmosphere into the lungs; breathing in. During inspiration the lungs expand, whilst the diaphragm contracts and the ribs move upwards and outwards. The diaphragm contracts, becoming flatter.
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What is expiration?
Expiration is air movement from the lungs to the atmosphere; breathing out. During expiration the lungs compress, the diaphragm relaxes and the ribs move down and in. The diaphragm relaxes, becoming cone-shaped.
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Explain the exchange of gases.
Gases move from high concentration areas to low. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide (diffusion) occurs in the capillaries within the alveoli. Air in alveoli has a high concentration of oxygen, low concentration of carbon dioxide . Blood in
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Explain the exchange of gases (2)
capillaries of alveoli have a high concentration of carbon dioxide and a low concentration of oxygen. Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood into alveoli to be exhaled while oxygen diffues into blood and returned to the heart
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The human body contains 6 litres of blood, composed of two main sections:
1.Solid section (45% of blood volume)-red blood cells -white blood cells -platelets 2.Liquid section (55% of blood volume) -plasma
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Functions of blood?
-protects the body against blood loss through clotting -protects the body against germs that cause infection -regulates normal body temperature through the cooling and heating of its water content -transports oxygen around the body as well as
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Functions of blood (2)
transporting important nutrients, waste products and hormones through the body
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What are the functions of Red Blood Cells(Erythrocytes)?
Deliver oxygen around the body, are produced in blood marrow, contain iron, are demanded more by the body in periods such as pregnancy, menstruation, have a flat disc shape providing large surface area for taking up oxygen
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What are the functions of White Blood Cells(Leuocyres)?
-are produced in the bone marrow and tissue -move to areas of infection or disease and attempt to engulf the invading bodies -provide body with a mobile protection system against disease -change shape and move against blood flow to engulf disease
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What are the functions of Platelets?
-are responsible for the repair of slightly damaged blood vessels -are essential in the process of blood clotting -platelets are fragments of cells found in blood -they have no nucleus
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What are the functions of Plasma?
-plasma contains water, nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, enzymes and hormones, waster products -plasma is the bulk of blood -plasma is necessary for the nourishment and functioning of body tissues
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What is the heart?
The heart is a muscular pump that contracts rhythmically, providing the force to keep the blood circulating throughout the body
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What are lactate levels?
Lactate levels involves how much lactic acid is used during intense exercise - lactic forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for energy during times of low oxygen levels. Lactate increases in the blood during exercise.
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What is blood pressure?
Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels.
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Definition of Muscular strength:
the force that a muscle or group of muscles can exert in a single maximal contraction.
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Definition of Cardiovascular Endurance:
the ability of the working muscles to take up and use the oxygen that has been breathed in during exercise and transferred to the cells.
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Definition of Muscular Endurance:
the ability of the muscles to endure physical work for extended periods of time without undue fatigue.
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Definition of Flexibility:
the ability to move a joint through a great range of movement.
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Definition of Body composition:
the percentage of fat as opposed to lean body mass in a person.
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Definition of Muscular power:
the ability to use strength quickly to produce an explosive effort
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Definition of Agility:
the ability to change the position of the body quickly and precisely and yet retain balance
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Definition of Balance:
the ability to maintain the body in equilibrium while stationary (static) or moving (dynamic).
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Definition of Co-ordination:
the ability of your body's senses, your nervous system and your muscles to perform specific movements smoothly and accurately.
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Definition of Speed:
the ability to perform a movement quickly
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Definition of Reaction Time:
is the time taken to respond to a stimulus
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If we perform short sharp movements as in jumping and lifting the body uses the.....
anaerobic pathway to supply energy
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If movements are sustained and of moderate intensity, the....
aerobic pathway supplies the bulk of energy needs
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What does Anaerobic mean?
absence of oxygen. In an and the effort period much shorter than aerobic. To improve anaeroaerobic activity, the intensity level is much higherbic fitness we need to improve body's ability to recharge itself; that is decrease recovery time.
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What does Aerobic mean?
with oxygen. Aerobic refers to exercise that is dependent on oxygen utilisation by the body to enable muscular work. To improve we need to engage in activities that are continuous and long duration and use the FITT principle to provide guidance.
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Frequency (FITT principle)
This means how often we exercise. It is recommended to exercise 3-6 times a week, 6 being an elite athlete.
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Intensity (FITT principle)
This means how hard we exercise. For an aerobic training effect to occur, an athlete must train within their target heart rate zone;60-80% of maximum heart rate. Maximum heart rate is calculated by 220 minus your age.
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Time (FITT principle)
This means how long we exercise. Each exercise session should last for a minimum of 20 minutes. Optimum results are obtained from sessions lasting 30-60 minutes.
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Type (FITT principle)
The exercise should be aerobic and specific to the needs and capabilities of the athlete.
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What is biomechanics?
Bio-mechanics is a science concerned with forces and the effect of these forces on and within the human body.
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What is motion?
motion is the movement of a body from one position to another
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What are the different types of motion?
Linear, angular and general.
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What is Linear motion?
Linear motion takes place when a body and all parts connected to it travel the same distance in the same direction and at the same speed. e.g. a person in a moving elevator, running, swimming, tobogganing and skydiving
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What is Angular motion?
Angular motion is also called rotary motion. This occurs when a body or object moves in a curved path around a fixed point (called the axis of rotation). The axis may be within the body or external to the body.
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What is General motion?
General motion involves both linear and angular motion. e.g. when you cycle your legs display angular motion while your torso displays linear motion.
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What is distance?
Distance refers to how far the body has moved along the path that it has taken
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What is displacement?
Displacement is slightly different in that it is measured by the quickest route from point A to B (as the crow flies)
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What is speed?
Speed refers to the rate at which the body moves from one place to another. Speed= distance/time
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What is velocity?
Velocity is equal to displacement divided by time V= d/t speed and velocity are only equal when the body is undergoing linear
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What is acceleration?
Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes in a given amount of time (get equation from study book)
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What does it mean by acceleration can be positive, negative or of zero value.
Positive acceleration value means the person or object is speeding up. Negative acceleration values mean that the person or object is slowing down. A zero acceleration value means that the person is moving at a constant speed or isn't at all.
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What is the momentum?
Momentum is the amount of motion that a body possess momentum= mass x velocity
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What is the centre of gravity?
The centre of gravity of an object is the point at which all the weight is evenly distributed and about which the object is balanced.
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What is the line of gravity?
The line of gravity is an imaginary vertical line passing through the centre of gravity and extending to the ground
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When are we perfectly balanced?
when the line of gravity dissects the centre of gravity
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What is the base of support?
The base of support refers to an imaginary area that surrounds the outside edge of the body when it is in contact with a surface.
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What is fluid mechanics?
Fluid mechanics is a branch of mechanics concerned with properties of gases and liquids.
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When does our body float?
Our body floats when the forces created by its weight are matched equally or better by the buoyant force of water
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What is body density?
Body density, or its mass per unit volume, impacts on the ability to float. A body or object floats if its density is less than that of the fluid.
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What influences flotation and the way the body floats (or sinks)
The weight and distribution of organs and tissues throughout the body influences flotation and the way the body floats (or sinks)
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What is the centre of buoyancy?
The centre of buoyancy is the centre of gravity of a volume of water displaced by an object when it is immeresed in that water.
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What is drag?
drag is the force that opposes the forward motion of a body or object, reducing its speed or velocity.
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What is lift?
Lift is the component of a force that acts at right angles to the drag
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What is force?
Force is the push or pull acting on a body
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Applied and reaction forces
Applied forces are generated by muscles working on joints. Reaction forces are equal and opposite forces exerted in response to applied force
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What is power (biochemicals)?
Power is the application of force applied rapidly. Power is important to most activites, usually of short duration, such as jumping, starting in athletics and throwing.
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What is the magnus effect?
The magnus effect explains why spinning objects such as cricket and tennis balls deviate in the air from a normal flight path
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Superior, inferior, medial, lateral


up, down, middle, outside

Card 3


Anterior, posterior, proximal, distal


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


4 major types of bones


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Long Bones are..


Preview of the front of card 5
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