Once visual processing reaches V4, where does it go next for face processing?
posterior inferotemporal lobe to process simple features and anterior inferotemporal lobe to process elaborate features
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Why is the grandmother hypothesis unlikely (give 3 reasons)?
Cannot prove. Not enough cells for number of faces. When one cell dies, surely would still remember the person.
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What evidence is there for face-selective cells?
Single cell recording in the monkey temporal cortex by Gross et al, Perett et al and Foldark et al: cells here only responded to faces when a whole range of images were presented.
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At what age would you start looking at a face more than a scrambled face?
2-3 months
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Usually faces are processed holistically. What happens when faces are inverted?
Harder to recognise because they then have to be processed featurely.
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Is it easier to recognise a chimeric face when it is presented in isolation or on top of another face?
In isolation. Since faces are processed in isolation, a chimeric face on top of an inappropriate face just causes interference.
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With negative faces all the features remain in the same place. So how is a negative face processed?
It's processed featurely! Not holistically as you might expect.
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What features are used to recognise familiar faces?
Internal. In fact most face selective cells are selective to internal features. Unfamiliar faces however, are processed using external features.
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What do cells in the superior temporal sulcus do if they are specialised for heads?
They have tuning curves for the head being in a particular position and are able to generalise over size, orientation and lighting.
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STS cells can respond to where a person is attending. Which part of a person are the majority of STS cells tuned to?
The body, next followed by the head, then the eyes.
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In terms of STS cells specialised for attending to eyes, if a person is bent over towards the left but their eyes are gazing in the right direction, will left-direction tuned or right-direction tuned STS cells fire?
Right-direction tuned cells because the eye gaze info, to which the cell is specialised for, overrides the body info.
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Where are cells specialised for facial expression processing found?
The STS and amygdala.
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Is facial expression processing conscious?
It doesn't have to be. If there is low spatial frequency the magnocellular pathway does the work which means conscious processing isn't necessary.
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How long does it take for someone to start getting better at discriminating between people of a different race?
5 minutes according to Rhodes et al, 2010. During this time the system adapts. This means the system is less sensitive to similarities between people but more sensitive to any differences so discrimination improves.
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Different identities (the whole concept of a person) are thought to be processed by separate cells. Where are these cells located?
Temporal cortex.
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Who found the identity of charicatures could be identified faster than an image of the actual person?
Rhodes (1987)
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Which brain area did Andrews (2002) find was most active when people looked at the rubin vase illusion and saw a face?
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People with prosopagnosia have no overt recognition of faces. Which brain area is damaged?
The occipotemporal lobe
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People with capgras delusion have no covert recognition of family members. Which brain area is damaged here?
Ventromedial frontal lobe.
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People with symmetrical faces are thought to have "good genes", how about people with NON-average faces?
These people are thought to have homozygous genotypes for bad alleles so it is better to have an average face. What is a bit weird though is that if you exaggerate the features of an average face you get someone who is super attractive!
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Apart from symmetry and averageness, clear skin also signifies good health. What one other factor can influence attractiveness?
Hormones. During ovulation (most fertile) prefer someone highly ,asculine because this signifies long term health which is good to pass on to genes.
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In what way is processing someone's attractiveness biased to the left side of the person's face?
The left side of their face is processed by the right hemisphere which is specialised for face identification and emotion.
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What is bio movement?
Coordinated movement by a person. Processing starts early in life and can be improve by sound.
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Do the same mechanisms underlying bio movement underlie the MNS?
No. See to have separate systems.
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Once visual processing is complete by the LGN, then V1, where does it go next (give 3 more locations)?
V5, then medial superior temporal lobe (MST), then psoteriror superior temporal sulcus (pSTS).
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Give some features of the MST...?
It has larger receptive fields than V5. It is selective to complicated feautures of motion such as translation, expansion, contraction and rotation.
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What did Grossman (2000) find out about the STS?
It responds to bio motion (Johansson figures) but not scrambled dots.
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What evidence is there in favour that V5 processes implied motion?
fMRI studies by Zeki et al (1991) and Kortzi and Kanwisher (2000) found greater V5 activi during presentation of implied motion images than stationary images so it seemed like V5 could process implied motion
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What evidence is there against V5 processing implied motion?
Single cell recording from V5 in monkeys found no response when viewing implied motion stimuli
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If V5 cannot process implied motion, what explains the original studies suggesting it can?
Implied motion processing is carried out higher up in the visual system by STS but feedsback to V5
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Which brain area did Zeki et al (1993) find activated when viewing an image with illusionary motion?
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Who found area V5 activated when imagining motion?
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We have seen from facial processing that form is processed by the ventral pathway. Motion is processed by the dorsal pathway. In which brain area do the two pathways meet?
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What kind of social stimuli does the STS respond to?
Facesm bodies, hands and objects
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Some STS neurons are selective to integrations between form and motion. What does this mean?
Some cells in STS will only fire when there is motion as well as form info.
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Why are the STS and F5 thought to be linked together for processing actions?
STS seems to be for detection and recognition of actions whereas F5 seems to be for behavioural control. The interaction between them is unclear but Puce and Perrett (2003) think they could have a shared function.
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What is the STS biased to?
Forward motion.
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What is MT?
The monkey equivalent of V5
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What does single cell recording of the STS while viewing glass patterns show?
That direction selective cells are tuned to implied as well as real motion.
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Some STS cells are egocentric. What does this mean?
They are dependent on view. Those that are allocentric will fire in response to action no matter where it takes place in relation to you.
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What is the EBA specialised for?
Extrastriate body area. For the body.
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What is the LO specialised for?
Lateral occipital lobe. For objects.
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The STS has some eye gaze-tuned cells that are specialised for directed and others for averted gaze. When the STS is damaged, what happens?
Gaze direction can be perceived but no social info can be perceived from it.
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What is the relationship between STS and goals?
Some STS cells only activate in response to goal-directed movements.
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The STS seems to integrate modalities. What did Calvert (1997) find out about specialised mouth STS cells?
When numbers were read out, the STS activated more than when there was no sound (check)
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For ToM the representation of an action must be matched with an inference of their mental state. What neural processes are involved in this?
First the EBA encodes a representation of the body. The pSTS then encodes a representation of the goals movements have. The the TPJ encodes the content of the mental states underlying the action goals.
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What did Neville et al (1998) find out about ASL?
Using fMRI he found the STS is more active when deaf people see ASL than when they see nonsense gestures. So the STS is used to understand ASL.
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What are the key structures involved in the emotion processing network?
The anterior cingulate gyrus and the amygdala.
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What did Hamilton (2004) find out about action perception?
When viewing people who seemed to put in a lot of effort to pick up boxes, pps inferred that the box were heavier than when body language indicated the boxes were light.
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According to Jacobs and Shiffrar's (2005) study, when you're watching someone run and you're running on a treadmill, is it easier or harder to guess their speed than when you're walking?
Harder. It's easier to guess their running speed when you're walking.
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How does the pain feedback mechanism support simulation theory?
It is only when mechanoreceptors and pain receptors are blocked by injection that you can feel touch/pain just by imagining it. The same feedback thing might be happening with the simulation theory so normally simulated actions aren't produced.
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What is the basis of Theory Theory (Gergely and Csibra, 2003) in terms of understanding action intentions?
Accumulating a set of causal laws over time allows action understanding to be learnt.
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How do studies using dog behaviour stimuli support theory theory?
The MNS doesn't activate when viewing dogs move. This is because action understanding hasn't been learnt for actions we can't do ourselves.
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How could the MNS be a prerequisite for communication?
It is a link between sender and receiver because there are mirror neurons in F5/Broca's area (i.e. communication areas)
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Who said speech might have developed out of hand/mouth communication?
Arbib and Rizzolatti (1998)
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What evidence is there that young infants have a MNS?
They show Mu Rhythm supression in EEG
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What evidence is there that the MNS has gone strange in autism?
There is tinning of the STS, inferior parietal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus. There is also less Mu Rhythm suppression, less corticospinal activation and less IFG activity when working out enotions.
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How do MEP studies support the idea that humans have a MNS?
MEPs in muscles give an indicator of motor system activity. Fadiga et al found increased MEPs in the hand during observation of hand movements and MEPs in the tongue when words were read out.
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Which areas activate when viewing hand movements?
premotor area and inferoparietal cortex
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Which areas activate when viewing mouth movements?
Inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal cortex.
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Mirror type neurons have been found in M1. What are their features (give 2)?
Left hemisphere M1 responds to movements on the right side of the body. Neurons are topographically arranged according to neighbouring muscles.
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Mirror type neurons have also been found in premotor cortex. How does activity here generate coordinated movements?
Activity in one premotor neuron activates activity of groups of muscles.
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Are mirror neurons found in the STS?
NO. none yet.
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The visual receptive field is the area of space where light can modify the cells response. So what is the auditory receptive field?
The area of space where sounds can modify the cell's response. It is the same thing with somatosensory receptive field: area of body surface that touch can have an effect.
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What is multisensory integration?
The combined inputs from more than one sense at behavioural/neural levels which is useful for recognition and behaviour guidance.
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In which subcortical areas can multisensory integration happen?
The superior colliculus and putamen.
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In which CORTICAL areas can multisensory integration happen?
Association areas including STS, inferor parietal cortex, PMC and insular.
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If the top of a sponge vibrates in your left hand when your arms are out in front of you, where would a light have to flash to give the slowest reaction time?
The bottom of the left visual field because this is in the same area of space as the vibration but is incongruent since it is at the bottom of the visual field which creates interference.
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If the top of a sponge vibrates in your left hand when your arms are in front of you but crossed, where would a light have to fash to cause the slowest reaction time?
The bottom of the right visual field because here is remapping to account for the new arm position so it is inconguency between stimuli occupying the same area of space that causes the most interference.
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In a split brain patient, does crossing the arms have any effect on the side of space that causes interference in the visuotactile inference paradigm?
A split brain patient is unable to remap the link between visual space and tactile percepts when they cross their arms.
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How can you get remapping of the tactile percept in association with the visual percept when you are holding tools?
ou have to actively have practice with the tools for them to become part of your body schema.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why is the grandmother hypothesis unlikely (give 3 reasons)?


Cannot prove. Not enough cells for number of faces. When one cell dies, surely would still remember the person.

Card 3


What evidence is there for face-selective cells?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


At what age would you start looking at a face more than a scrambled face?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Usually faces are processed holistically. What happens when faces are inverted?


Preview of the front of card 5
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