Pathogens

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  • Created by: LSmith
  • Created on: 26-03-14 09:44
What are microorganisms that cause infectious diseases called?
Pathogens
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What are bacteria?
Very small, single-celled organisms, and not all cause disease
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Pathogenic bacteria _______ rapidly inside the body
Reproduce
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Pathogenic bacteria may produce what that make us feel ill?
Poisons (toxins)
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Example of bacteria:
E.Coli produces toxins that cause fever symptoms when we have food poisoning
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Viruses are much ________ than bacteria
Smaller
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ALL viruses are...
Pathogens
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How do viruses make us ill?
They produce toxins, and damage the cells in which they reproduce
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How do viruses replicate?
By invading cells, reproducing inside them and bursting them - this causes damage to tissues
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An example of a virus...
HIV virus damages white blood cells, reducing immunity and leading to AIDS
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How can pathogens enter the body?
Nasal passages, Mouth, Urethra, Anus, Vagina, Insect bites, Hair follicles, Contaminated needles, Scratched and cuts and direct penetration
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Disease occurs when...
Large numbers of pathogenic micro-organisms enter the body
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How are diseases transmitted?
Unhygienic conditions, direct contact with infected people or inhaling droplets from coughs or sneezes
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In the 1850s, who insisted that medical students washed their hands before delivering babies?
Ignaz Semmelweiss
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Why did people not readily accept Semmelweiss' ideas?
People were not aware of micro-organisms
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Why do people wash their hands before and after treating patients nowadays?
To prevent disease being transmitted from patient to patient
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How does the body externally protect us from infection?
Skin, blood clots sealing the wound, Ear wax, Tears, Nostril hairs, Eyelashes
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How does the body internally protect us from infection?
The trachea and lungs produce mucus to trap micro-organisms, and the stomach secretes hydrochloric acid which kills pathogens
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Internal defences include white blood cells...
These are part of the immune system
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There are two types of white blood cell..
Phagocytes and Lymphocytes
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What do phagocytes do?
They ingest and destroy micro-organisms
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What do lymphocytes do?
They produce antibodies that destroy specific pathogens, and they produce antitoxins that destroy toxins released by pathogens
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are bacteria?

Back

Very small, single-celled organisms, and not all cause disease

Card 3

Front

Pathogenic bacteria _______ rapidly inside the body

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Pathogenic bacteria may produce what that make us feel ill?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Example of bacteria:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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