1. Who says 'a party is not a community but a collection of communities'?
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2. Which of the following is not a reason for declining party membership?
- greater appeal of social movements
- weakening of social cleavages
- loosening of the bond with trade unions
- increase in corruption
- rise of extremist parties
- decay of local electioneering
3. Who says that 'it has already been shown that there exists no centre opinion...tendency... doctrine separate in any kind from the doctrines of the right or left- but only a dilution of their doctrines'?
4. Who say that Duverger is wrong about electoral formula's effect on the number of parties and that the formula exists to serve the demand for parties due to social cleavages?
- Ordeshook and Coz
- Lipset and Rokkan
5. Who says that even parties committed to democracy become dominated by a ruling elite?