Particle Physics

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  • Created by: aduguid
  • Created on: 26-02-16 15:48
what are the charges of a proton/electron in coulombs?
+/- 1.6x10^-19
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what is the mass of a neutron in kg?
1.67x10^-27 same as a proton
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what is the mass of an electron in kg?
9.11x10^-31
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what is the relative mass of an electron?
1/1800
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what is specific charge?
charge per unit of mass
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what is a nucleon?
a proton or neutron in the nucleus
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what is the nucleon number?
number of protons and neutrons in an element (mass number)
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what are the symbols for proton number and nucleon number in nuclide notation?
proton number: Z nucleon number: A
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what are the four fundamental forces?
strong, weak, gravitational, electromagnetic
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what is the function of the strong nuclear force?
it works against the repulsive electrostatic force to hold the nucleus together.
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what is the range of the strong force? what happens outside this range?
0.5fm-3fm. Below 0.5 it is repulsive. Above 3 the strength falls quickly
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What happens when an aplha particle is emitted?
proton number decreases by two, nucleon number decreases by four
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What happens when a beta particle is emitted?
proton number increases by one and nucleon number stays the same.
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Why is a neutrino emitted during beta decay?
to account for conservation of energy. It carries away some energy and momentum
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what is an antiparticle?
a subatomic particle with the same mass as a given particle but opposite charge. Every particle has a corresponding antiparticle.
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what are the antiparticles of the electron, proton, neutron and neutrino respectively?
positron, antiproton, antineutron, antineutrino
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what is the rest energy of a proton/antiproton
938
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what is the rest energy of a neutron/antineutron
939
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what is the rest energy of an electron/positron
0.511
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what is the equation for energy of a photon?
E=hf=hc/λ
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what is the planck constant?
6.63x10^-34 Joules
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what is pair production? what is the minimum energy involved?
when a photon is converted into a particle of matter and a particle of antimatter. E(min)=hf(min)=2E0
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What is annihilation? What is the minimum energy involved?
when a particle meets its antiparticle and they get converted into two photons. E(min)=hf(min)=E0
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How do you convert from MeV to Joules
times by 1.6x10^-19
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What are gauge bosons?
virtual exchange particles which cause forces to attract/repel elementary particles
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What is the gauge boson for the electromagnetic force?
virtual photon(γ)
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What is the gauge boson for the weak interaction?
W+ bosons/W- bosons
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What happens in electron capture?
a proton collides with an electron. The proton release a W+ boson and turns into a neutron. The W+ boson converts the electron to a neutrino
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What happens in an electron-proton collision?
the electron releases a W- boson and turns into a neutrino. The W- boson converts the proton to a neutron
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what is the equation of beta minus decay? What is the exchange particle?
n -> p + e- + νe(antineutrino) W- boson
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what is the equation of beta minus decay? What is the exchange particle?
p -> n + e+ + ve(neutrino) W+ boson
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Which particles are subject to the strong interaction?
Hadrons
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What are the two classes of hadrons?
baryons(and antibaryons) and mesons
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What particles come under baryons?
proton neutron antiproton antineutron
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What eventually happens to all baryons and why?
They eventually decay into protons as they are the only stable baryon
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What particles come under mesons?
kaon and pion
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Give a property of the kaon
It can decay into pions
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What is the quantum number for baryons? What happens to the baryon number in a reaction?
the baryon number. It is +1 for matter and -1 for antimatter. The total baryon number in any particle interaction is conserved.
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Which particles are subject to the weak interaction?
Leptons
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Name all the leptons
electron, muon, electron neutrino, muon neutrino and their anti particles
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What do muons become when they decay?
electrons
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What is the lepton number?
the number of leptons. There are two types - electron and muon. These are +1 for matter and -1 for antimatter. This number is conserved in particle interactions.
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What are strange particles?
particles that are produced through the strong interactions but decay through the weak interactions.
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Why are strange particles produced in pairs (matter and antimatter)?
because strangeness is conserved through strong interactions
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What happens to strangeness in weak interactions?
it changes by 0, +1 or -1
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Name the 3 quarks and their baryon number
up, down and strange +1/3
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What is the charge and strangeness of the up quark?
charge: +2/3 strangeness: 0
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what is the charge and strangeness of the strange quark
charge: -1/3 (same as down quark) strangeness: -1
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what is the strangeness of the down particle?
0
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which quark has a strangeness of +1
anti-strange
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Ho many quarks in a baryon?
3
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What are measons made up of?
a quark and antiquark
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which quarks are in a pion? which quarks are in a kaon?
pion: up, down, anti up and anti down kaon: all these plus strange and antistrange as kaons have a strangeness.
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what happens to quarks during the decay of a neutron?
a down quark get changed into an up quark. This happens via the weak interaction
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What four properties are conserved in particle interactions?
charge, baryon number, strangeness(strong force only), leptons(electron and muon number separately)
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Card 2

Front

what is the mass of a neutron in kg?

Back

1.67x10^-27 same as a proton

Card 3

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what is the mass of an electron in kg?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the relative mass of an electron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is specific charge?

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Comments

LouiseG

Nice resource :) But for Q.24 ; the conversion should be 1.6 x10^-13 as Mev is mega (x106) electronvolts 

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