1. What did psychologist Anderson (1999) discover?
- 91 childless undergrads reported (no gender differences) they felt ready to become parents but measured their physiological responses males showed significantly increased heart-rate suggesting they're biologically less prepared than females
- Using the a magazine survey completed by 2700 UK women estimated 14% of children in the UK are the result of extra-marital affairs and cuckoldry
- Men would not discriminate against paying for their biological children and their step-children's collage education
- Males are more jealous of physical adultery where as women are more jealous of emotional adultery and concludes that sexual jealousy has evolved over time as a way of preventing cuckoldry
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2. What is the best explanation for Anderson's findings using the parental investment theory?
- Parental Investment theory is correct
- The theory has it wrong and in real life men don't have a problem with cuckoldry
- Investment levels may be due to desire for sexual intimacy with wife and promote own personal reproductive fitness as she would more likely remain and reproduce with him
- Parental Investment theory only applies to young children
3. What is the Extent of Postnatal Male Investment?
- Men have an evolved drive for sexual variation and therefore are less likely to commit to postnatal investment
- Males provide resources for child post-natally
- Great Extent
- Equal to female postnatal parental investment
4. Why do Human Mothers Invest More Postnatally?
- The human brain has evolved to triple its size over the last 2 thousand years
- So male partners will provide food, security and shelter
- To increase both their own survival and the survival of their genes in the gene pool as their children will more likely reproduce if alive and therefore they breastfeed etc.
- Childbirth is very dangerous (only with reccent modern technology women stand a really good chance of survival)
5. Why do Human Mothers Invest More Prenatally?
- human infants are born relatively immature compared to other animals so they would not survive if left to their own devices
- Gametes are more costly and less numerous than male sperm so can only have a limited amount of offspring
- In order to appear more attractive to males
- Women are biologically less able to hunt and so raise children instead