parental investment

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what did Daly and Wilson suggest?
males of most species can afford to devote rather little, in comparison to females, to parental care
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what does the parental investment theory state?
the sex that makes the larger investment will be the more sexually discriminating, but the sex that makes the smaller PI will compete for access to the higher investing sex
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what is meant by maternal investment?
the investment made my females is far greater than males as they produce far fewer gametes, greater parental investment may be due to parental certainty
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why do human females invest more?
Human females breastfeed their young and so are more burdened by the extended period of childcare that results from this prolonged immaturity
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what are the costs of maternal investment?
the minimum PI would be 9 months of pregnancy and years of feeding and carrying but minimum male PI is the moment of fertilisation
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what is meant by paternal investment?
a male can father a potentially unlimited amount of offspring. indicriminate mating costs alot less for a man compared to a woman
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what is the issue of paternal investment and cuckoldry?
when males do invest parentally they need to protect themselves from cuckoldry. as they make an investment in their children they have greater concern of their partners fidelity
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what is the issue of sexual and emotional jealousy?
sexual jealousy may have evolved as a solution to the problem of cuckoldry. men are more jealous of the sexual act compared to a womens jealousy of shift in emotional focus
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A02- what research has there been into extra marital affairs?
females want to ensure good quality offspring. a female could marry a man who can provide for her and the children but shop around for good genes through extra marital affairs. 14% of the population are the result of affairs
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A02- what research is there into the benefits and risks of cuckoldry?
the benefits women could obtain by this type of behaviour include receiving additional support and higher quality genes for her children
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A02- what risks come with a woman cuckolding her partner?
possibility of abandonment and threats or violence which are the use of mate retention strategies
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A02- what commentary has there been on paternal investment?
males DO invest, parental certainty is not always an issue for human males, and evidence for sex differences in jealousy.
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A02- what has research found in regards to males DO invest?
Reid 1997 claimed human males do contribute to parenting by providing resources and this investment allows the family to live in healthier environments, resulting in decrease in infant and child mortality
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A02- what does research suggest about parental certainty and willingness to bring up a child?
Anderson meassures resources invested by fathers and step fathers and men appeared to not discriminate against his own children and his step children
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IDA- why are evolutionary explanations reductionist?
parental investment based on evolutionary factors alone is limited. mens parental behaviour depends om various personal and social conditions
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IDA- what research has come from animal studies?
chimpanzees showed little or no parental investment. suggesting the emergence of male parenting represents either a dramatic evolutionary change or contribution to cultural learning
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Card 2

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what does the parental investment theory state?

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the sex that makes the larger investment will be the more sexually discriminating, but the sex that makes the smaller PI will compete for access to the higher investing sex

Card 3

Front

what is meant by maternal investment?

Back

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Card 4

Front

why do human females invest more?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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what are the costs of maternal investment?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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