Paper 1 vocab

Dynamic
Constantly changing.
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Lithosphere
The lithosphere is the uppermost layer of the Earth. It is cool and britle. It includes the very top of the mantle and the crust.
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Radioactive decay
Some elements are naturally unstable and radioactive. Atoms of these elements release particles from their nuclei and give off heat.
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Subduction
Describes oceanic crust sinking into the mantle at a destructive plate boundary. As the crust subducts, it melts back into the mantle.
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Tectonic hazards
Are natural events that effect people and property.
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Refugees
Are people who are forced to move due to a natural hazards or war.
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Aid
Help. It can be in short-term such as food given in emergency, or long-term such as traing health care.
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A relief effort
Is like aid. It is help gioven by organisations or countries to helo those facing an emergency.
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A tsunami
Is a series of waves produced by an undersea earthquake. Tsunami waves travel across the ocean at over 400km/h. They can be 10m high when they reach the coast.
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Primary effects
Caused instantly by the earthquake. Roads crack, walls collapse and landslides happen.
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Secondry effects
In the hours, days and weeks after the earthquke . Fires break out, diseases spread and food and water run short.
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Aftershocks
Often occur as the fault 'settles' into its new position. They can injure or kill rescuers. In the developing world, aftershocks often destry building sthat were weakend by the earthquake.
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A climatologist
is a scientist who is an expert in climate and climate change.
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The stratosphere
Is the layer of air 10-50km abouve the Earths surface. It is above the cloudy layer we live in, called the troposhere.
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Extinction
Means a species of plant or animal dying oout completely, so none survive.
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Food Chain
In a food chain, plants provide food for plant-eating animals. Herbivores provide food for meat-eating animals,carnivores. Plants and animals are linked together, and depend on each other.
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Megafauna
means 'big animals'. Most weighed over 40kg and included the wooly mammoth, giant elk, ground sloth, sabre-tooth cat, giant beaver and glyptodon.
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The atmosphere
Is a layer of gasses above the Earth's surface.
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The greenhouse effect
Is the way that gasses in the atmosphere trap heat from the sun. The gasses act as the glass in a greenhouse. They let heat in, but prevent most of it from getting out.
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Desertification
Is the gradual change of land into desert.
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Evapourtranspiration
Is when water evapourates form the pores of leaves into the atmosphere. This results in water being drawn up plant stems.
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Pressure belts
Are regions of the atmosphere which run around the Earth. They are parallel to the Equator. Some are high-pressure areas. Others are low-pressure areas.
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Sustainable
means a process that does no lasting harm to people or the environment.
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The gene pool
Is the genetic information contained in living organisms.
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Indigenous people
Are people who have originated in and lived in a country for many generations.
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Transnational companies
Are giant companies operating in many countries.
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Biodiversity
Is the range of animal and plant life found in an area.
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Mass extinction
Refers to the extinction of a large number of species within a short period of geological time.
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A keystone species
Is one which has a partcularly large effect on other living organisims.
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The biosphere
Is the part of the Earth and Atmosphere in which living organisms exist.
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Infiltration
Movement of water into the soil from the surface.
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Percolation
Movement of water into underlying rocks.
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Groundwater storage
Water stored in focks following percolation.
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Sauration
When soil is full of moisture.
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Water table
The level at which saturation occurs in the ground or soil.
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Inputs
Things which enter the system.
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Outputs
Things which leave the system.
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Transfers or Flows
Movements within the system.
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Stores
Held within the system.
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Water stress
Occurs when the demand for water exceeds the amount available during a certain period, or when it is not good enough quality to use.
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Physical water scarcity
Shortages occur when demand exceeds supply.
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Economic water scarcity
When people simply can't afford water, even if it is readily available.
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Overabstraction
Means too much water is being taken from the river, lake or other water source.
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Tube wells
Are built where the water table is too deep to b ereached by a hand-dug well.
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Appropriate or Intermediate technology
A development sceme that meet the needs of local people and the environment in which they live.
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Erosion
Is the process of wearing away and breaking down rockes. There are three main types of coastal erosion; abraision, attrition and hydraulic action.
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A cove
Is an oval-shaped bay with a narrow opening to the sea.
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Storm surge
During a storm surge, sea leves rise. This is because the air pressure falls. Sea level rises by 10mm for every 1 millibar drop in air pressure.
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Weathering
Is the breakdown of rocks in situ. This means it happens where the rock is. Rocks are weakened by being chemically attacked and mechanically broken down.
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Mass movement
Is the movement of materials downslope, such as rock falls, landslides or cliff collapse.
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Dissipate
Means to reduce wave energy, as some of it is absorbed as waves pass through, or over, sea defences.
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Finite resources
Resources which will one day run out are called finite resources. Examples are oil and coal.
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Participatory planning
All stakeholders are involved in the development of a scheme.
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Ecotourism
Some people prefer to take a holiday in natural areas so that they can gain an understanding of conservation and wildlife. This is called Ecotourism.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The lithosphere is the uppermost layer of the Earth. It is cool and britle. It includes the very top of the mantle and the crust.

Back

Lithosphere

Card 3

Front

Some elements are naturally unstable and radioactive. Atoms of these elements release particles from their nuclei and give off heat.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describes oceanic crust sinking into the mantle at a destructive plate boundary. As the crust subducts, it melts back into the mantle.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Are natural events that effect people and property.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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