Paper 1 Revision

Why was reform needed?
Only charities were there to help the poor. People were dying because of malnourishment or illness. The only help the government gave the poor was the opportunity to go into a workhouse.
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What reforms were passed?
Children were given free school meals and medical inspections (along with any medicine they may need), the Pensions Act was introduced, and the People's National Insurance was introduced, along with the Labour Exchanges.
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How successful were the reforms?
The reforms were successful because they genuinely helped many children with food and medical health. However, some other aspects were not helpful - for example, the Labour Exchange was almost pointless, and the Pensions Act was over 70s.
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How did people react to the reforms?
The poorer people were grateful for the reforms - for example, free school meals for children meant that money could be spent somewhere else. However, the richer people were not so happy as their taxes were higher, as part of the People's Budget.
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Why did women want the vote?
Women wanted the vote because it meant that they could have a say in who was elected in the government. They felt that they had just as much right as the men did to vote, and they did not understand why they were not allowed to do something so simple
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Why weren't women given the vote?
They were not believed to be mature or sensible enough to be able to handle it. Men didn't believe that women were intellectual enough to know who to vote for, and also thought that women's opinions on anything were useless and not important.
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How effective were the tactics used?
The tactics used were very effective. Suffragettes were setting fire to mailboxes so men wouldn't receive their post, and going on hunger strike. Suffragists were signing petitions. All of this was to get the attention of the men and the government.
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Why did some women receive the vote?
Some women received the vote because they showed that they were helpful in the workplace during WW1. They were mature and intelligent enough to be able to carry out men's jobs when they were away, and proved that they weren't immature and excitable.
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How was Britain organised for war?
Britain organised itself for war by building battleships and making lots of artillery. More guns and ammunition were being made in the factories than ever, and the production of shells was sky-high.
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How did Britain raise an army?
Britain raised an army by putting up recruitment posters everywhere. Recruitment offices were set up in many towns across the country for volunteers to go to. Politicians made patriotic speeches which encouraged men to fight for their country.
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How was propaganda used?
There were many posters and flyers published to gain support for the war effort, many of which are still famous today. These posters played on the patriotic minds of men, women, and even children and young boys.
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How was rationing used in WW1? How was it effective?
Rationing meant that every family could only have a set amount of food every week. This actually worked to keep Britain in order during the war. If someone was caught doing anything illegal to do with rationing, there were very strict fines to pay.
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How did bombs/shelling affect Britain?
Hundreds of people were killed in Britain due to bombing raids by the Germans, and thousands more injured. Shells were dropped on towns on the eastern and southern side of Britain multiple times. There was no warning of these raids.
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Who were the Big Three and what were their aims?
Lloyd George, Clemenceau and Wilson. Clemenceau wanted to punish Germany severely, Lloyd George wanted to punish Germany but not awfully, and Wilson believed in no harsh punishments as the peace had to be kept.
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What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Germany's army was restricted to 100,000 men. Britain always had to have a larger navy than Germany, they were not allowed any aircraft, and they had to pay reparations to France for the damage to their country.
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How happy were the Big Three with the results of the Treaty of Versailles?
Wilson was dissatisfied with the results of the Treaty of Versailles, he believed that it was too harsh and would only make the Germans angry.Clemenceau wanted to punish the Germans more, and all Lloyd George cared about was that his navy was bigger.
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What was the general reaction to the Treaty of Versailles?
The people of Germany were angry at how harshly they had been treated. However, the people of Britain and France were very pleased with the result of the Treaty. Americans were happy with the result, even though their leader was not.
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What was the League of Nations?
It was a League suggested by Woodrow Wilson. It meant that disputes between countries could be resolved before it got out of hand and led to a war.
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What were the successes of the League of Nations?
Upper Silesia, there was a vote to see whether Germany or Poland got this piece of land. The vote was equal so the League divided the land. Bulgaria, Greece invaded Bulgaria. The League morally condemned them and they retreated.
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What were the failures of the League of Nations?
Corfu, an Italian official was killed because he tried to sort out a dispute between Greece and Albania. Italy fined Greece, the problem was never solved. Vilna, Poland took control of a Lithuanian city, League protested but did nothing to stop them.
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What was the structure of the League?
There was a council (who met five times a year), an assembly (who met once a year), the Permanent Court, and then other institutes (such as the Refugees Committee). Despite all this, the League was still very unorganised and slow making decisions.
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What happened in the Abyssinian crisis?
Mussolini launches an invasion of Abyssinia, the League are delayed in their decision of what to do.Both GB and France fear war with Italy, they also had no support from US. Any economic/oil sanctions will be useless as US will still provide Italy.
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What happened in the Manchurian crisis?
The League sent in officials to assess how the Japanese had invaded the Chinese a year after the invasion. After the report said that they were wrong, Japanese left the League and then the League didn't know whether to make sanctions against Japan.
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What was the point of disarmament?
It was important for Germany to be disarmed, so they could not have another opportunity to invade a country. It was so important that another war did not start in this time - countries were still very fragile and weak after WW1.
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What were the reasons for the failure of disarmament?
No countries wanted to disarm, and it was unfair to expect Germany to disarm on their own. No countries trusted to fully disarm - at the Washington Conference, 1921, US, Japan, GB and France agreed to limit the size of their navy, but that was it.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What reforms were passed?

Back

Children were given free school meals and medical inspections (along with any medicine they may need), the Pensions Act was introduced, and the People's National Insurance was introduced, along with the Labour Exchanges.

Card 3

Front

How successful were the reforms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How did people react to the reforms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why did women want the vote?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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