paper 3 - issues and debates

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what is cultural bias?
judging all ppl in terms of own cultural assumption and any cultural differences in behav. seen as abnormal
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what are the 2 types of bias? what do they mean?
alpha (big difference between cultural groups) beta (ignores/minimises differences
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what is ethnocentrism?
belief that own ethnic group superior to others
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what is cultural relativism?
the opinion that findings from one culture only make sense from the perspective/context of that culture.
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what is the etic-emic distinction?
etic = behaviour from outside a culture and is assumed to be universal, emic = behaviour from inside culture and specific only to that culture
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what is gender bias?
when research gives a view which doesn't justifiably represent the difference between experience/behaviours in men and women
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what is universality in terms of gender bias?
when research applies equally to both genders despite differences in experience and upbringing.
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what is androcentrism?
research based on males used to apply to females and creates biased view as assumed to be norm for both.
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what is free- will?
when humans choose their behaviour and influences such as environmental or biological factors can be rejected
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what is determinism?
theory that free will is an illusion and that an individual's behaviour is controlled by internal/external forces. our behaviour is predictable.
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what is hard and soft determinism?
hard = completely controlled by external sources, soft = only controlled by externals to an extent
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what is biological determinism?
behaviour fully caused by internal biological factors e.g. genes and hormones that are not under our control
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what is environmental determinism?
our behaviour is caused by past experiences and external forces in the environment
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what is psychic determinism?
unconscious and innate features drive and control our behaviour
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what is the nature-nurture debate?
the extent to which aspects of behaviour are a product of inherited (genes etc) or acquired (nature) characteristics
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what is nativism?
this is the nature side of the debate and argues we are born with characteristics which are innate
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what is empiricism?
nurture side of debate and established concept of 'tabula rasa': we are born as a blank slate and experience forms our personality
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what is the interactionist approach?
looks at how nature and nurture influence each other, doesn't argue one side. Diathesis stress model - psychopathology caused by genes but triggered by environment.
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what is reductionism?
belief that human behaviour can be explained by breaking it down into smaller components
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what is holism?
any approach that looks at the whole behaviour rather than it's constituent parts
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what is the idiographic approach?
focuses on the uniqueness of the individual and looks at details of behaviour in depth.
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what is the nomothetic approach?
aims to establish laws and generalisations that apply to many people
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what are the ethical implications of socially sensitive research?
research that may be controversial e.g about sexuality/race may have consequences for social groups as gives scientific credibility for prejudice
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when do ethical issues arise?
when theres a conflict between getting valid and valuable results and preserving the rights and dignity of people
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Card 2

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what are the 2 types of bias? what do they mean?

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alpha (big difference between cultural groups) beta (ignores/minimises differences

Card 3

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what is ethnocentrism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is cultural relativism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the etic-emic distinction?

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