Paper 1 Section A: The challenge of natural hazards

What is a natural hazard?
A natural hazard is an event that harms property or causes loss of life.
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What are the different types of natural hazard?
Tectonic eg; earthquakes or tsunamis, Geomorphological eg; floods, atmospheric eg; hurricanes and biological eg; forest fires
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What factors affect hazard risk?
Deforestation and urbanisation increase chances, the location people choose to live in also affects this.
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How do tectonic plates move?
There are two main theories. 'Convection current' and 'Ridge push and slab pull'
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What is the convection current in magma?
This causes magma to rise in the mantle and sink when it cools.
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What is ridge push and slab pull? (constructive plate margins)
At constructive plate margins, the plates move apart and the hot magma rises and cools, forming a new plate. As the old oceanic plate cools it sinks and slides down away from the ridge. This is ridge pull.
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What is ridge push and slab pull? (destructive plate margins)
At destructive plate margins, the denser plate sinks back into the mantle because of gravity, the rest of the plate is pulled along with it?
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What happens at a constructive plate margin?
Two oceanic plates are pulled apart and magma rises forming volvanoes.
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What happens at a conservative plate margin?
Two continental plates, rub against each other, in opposite directions or in the same direction at different speeds. these often cause earthquakes.
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What happens at a destructive plate margin?
This is when an oceanic and continental plate collide. The denser heavier oceanic plate subducts under the continental plate, this then melt and rises up in the form of a volcano. There are earthquakes around the subduction zone and
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What is the pacific ring of fire?
This is a chain of volcanoes around the pacific ocean
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What were the primary effects of the L'Aquila earthquake in Italy?
308 people were killed, many churches and monuments were destroyed. San Salvatore hospital was so badly damaged that people were treated outside. 308 people were killed, 1,500 were injured and 67,500 were made homeless.
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How bad was the L'Aquila earthquake?
6.3 on the richter scale and it struck at 3.32 am. 6 april 2009
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What were the secondary effects of the L'Aquila earthquake?
Aftershocks triggered landslides which caused damage to buildings. The number of students at L'Aquila university went down. The cities CBD was unsafe so business, tourism and income reduced. A burst water pipe caused a mudslide near paganio
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What were immediate responses to the L'Aquila earthquake?
within an hour the Italian Red Cross was searching for survivors, 40,000 tents were given out and hotels provided shelter for 10,000. Mortgages, gas and electric bills were suspended. The eu gave $552.9 million. The DEC gave no aid, L'Auquila is rich
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What were the long term responses for the L'Aquila earthquake?
Residents did not have to pay taxes for 2010, Students were given free transport and were exempt from uni fees for 3 years. october 12 six scientists were sent to prison for six year because they did not predict the quake. In November 2014 it was ok
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What are the economic impacts of the L'Aquila earthquake?
Tourism and business decreased. House prices and rent increased.
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What were the social impacts of the L'Aquila earthquake?
People lost family members, cultural monuments were destroyed, several buildings of the L'Aquila university were destroyed
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What were the environmental impacts of the L'Aquila earthquake?
A landslide and mudflow was caused by a burst water pipe, animal habitat was destroyed.
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How bad was the Gorkha earthquake in Nepal?
28 april 2015 a 7.8 magnitude earthquake happened at 11:56 am
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What were the primary effects of the Gorkha earthquake?
8841 people died, 16,000 injured and 1 million homeless. The Dharahara tower in kathmandu was destroyed, there were 352 aftershocks and a second 7.3 earthquake. 26 hospitals and 50% of schools were destroyed
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What were the secondary effects of the Gorkha earthquake?
The earthquake triggered an avalanche on Mt. Everest, it killed many sherpas as well as 19 tourists. The earthquake happened before monsoon season, rice seed stored in homes was lost which caused food shortages and income loss as rice is nepals stapl
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What were the immediate responses to the Gorkha earthquake?
The DEC raised $126 million, temporary shelters were set up. tents were provided for 255,000 people. Facebook set up a way to let family members know they were safe
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Describe ridge pull and slab push
insert pic
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What were the long-term responses to the Gorkha earthquake?
Durbar square heritage sites were reopened to encourage tourists. 23 areas required re building including schools, housing, roads, monuments and agriculture
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How did the effects and responses vary between the countries?
Corrupt governments divert money from those who need it, the time of day affects response, population density, monitoring a predicting and resources.
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Why do people live in hazardous areas?
Geothermal energy; energy is cheaper, in Reykjavik there is a power plant that provides electricity and hot water. Farming; land near volcanoes is fertile and rich in nutrients.Mining; sulphur can be mined to make medicines, matches and fertiliser
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How can the risk of earthquakes be reduced?
Monitoring and prediction, Planning and Protection
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How can monitoring and prediction reduce risk of earthquakes?
Seismometers are used to measure tremors before main earthquakes, measuring radon gas in groundwater can help as radon escapes from cracks in the earth
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How can protection reduce risk of earthquakes?
Earthquake buildings can be built to absorb shock but these are very expensive
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How can planning reduce risk of earthquakes?
The japanese practice earthquake drill on a national training day, furniture can be fastened down to avoid injury, residents can learn how to turn off the main gas, water and electricity, preparing emergency supplies
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How can protection reduce the risk of volcanic eruptions?
This is very difficult because buildings cannot be designed against lava but homes must be evacuated?
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How can planning reduce risk of volcanic eruptions?
an evacuation plan is best, exclusion zones can be made so people don't go into at risk areas
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When do tropical storms occur?
When warm air rises to create an area of low pressure. when warm air reaches height, the winds spiral around a point creating the eye of the storm. the warm air cools into heavy rainfall
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why are tropical storms distributed where they are?
They occur in the ITCZ (international tropical convergence zone). sea temp must be over 27 C and 60-70m deep
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what are the seven steps of storm formation?
1.warm air from oceans rise 2.the rising air draws moisture and makes strong winds 3.coriolis affect causes eye of the storm 4.cooling air causes rainfall and the heat given off powers the storm 5.cold air sinks in the eye so it is drier and calmer 6
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why do tropical storms spin?
The coriolis effect
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how will climate change affect tropical storms?
the effect on intensity, frequency and uncertainty is unknown
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How are tropical storms measured?
using the saffir-simpson scale
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what were the primary effects of Typhoon Haiyan?
6,190 people died, 1.1 million tonnes of crops were destroyed, the airport was badly damaged.
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What were the secondary effects of typhoon Haiyan?
an oil leak occurred which contaminated fishing waters, people looted stores because they were starving.
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What were the immediate responses to Typhoon Haiyan?
800,000 people were evacuated, $1.5 billion was pledged in aid, emergency aid supplies arrived three days later and a curfew was put in place to avoid the looting
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what were the long term responses to typhoon Haiyan?
there is a storm surge warning system and there is a no build zone along the coast of visayas
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how are tropical storms monitored?
Satellites and aircraft can monitor
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can tropical storms be predicted?
somewhat but not 100%
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how can people protect against tropical storms
storm shutters on windows, emergency generators and removing trees close to buildings help
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How can planning reduce the risks of tropical storms?
you can prepare disaster supply kits and knowing where evacuation shelters are
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the different types of natural hazard?

Back

Tectonic eg; earthquakes or tsunamis, Geomorphological eg; floods, atmospheric eg; hurricanes and biological eg; forest fires

Card 3

Front

What factors affect hazard risk?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do tectonic plates move?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the convection current in magma?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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