Paper 1: Section A: The challenge of natural hazards

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What is a natural hazard?
A natural event that threatens people or could cause damage, destruction and death.
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How are different types of natural hazards classified?
tectonic; earthquakes and tsunamis, atmospheric; hurricanes, geomorphological; flooding and biological hazards; forest fires
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What hazards affect hazard risk?
Global warming, deforestation and urbanisation have increased frequency and magnitude of natural hazards.
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Where are earthquakes and volcanoes located?
Earthquakes are found at all three types of plate margins and volcanoes are found at conservative and destructive plate margins eg pacific ring of fire
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How do tectonic plates move?
There are two main theories. convection currents and ridge push and slab pull
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What is the convection current theory?
magma rises in the mantle and sinks towards the core when it cools, the current flows carrying plates with it
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What is the ridge push and slab pull theory?
insert picture
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What is continental crust?
thick, less dense and old
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What is oceanic crust?
thin, dense and young
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How do constructive plate margins move?
Two plates pull apart from each other and magma reaches the mantle and cools to form a volcano
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what happens when constructive plate margins happen on land?
They form rift valleys eg the mid atlantic ridge in Iceland where the land is splitting in two due to the strain
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How do plates move at destructive plate margins? (two continental plates)
The plates collide push up and form mountains
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How do plates move at destructive plate margins (oceanic and continental)
oceanic plate subducts under and is recycled in the earths mantle
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How do plates move at conservative margins?
plates move parallel to each other, either in the same direction at different speeds or in different directions
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What is the L'Aquila earthquake in Italy?
on 6 april 2009 a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck at 3:32 AM
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What were the primary effects of the L'Aquila earthquake?
308 people were killed, 1500 were injured, 67,500 were made homeless. San Salvatore Hospital was so damaged that patients had to be treated outside. many churches and monuments with cultural value were destroyed
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What were the secondary effects of the L'Aquila earthquake?
Aftershocks triggered landslides causing damage to homes, number of students at L'Aquila university went down, lack of housing meant rent went up
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What were the immediate responses to the L'Aquila earthquake?
Bills for Sky TV, gas and electric were suspended, Italian post office offered free mobile calls, Within an hour the Italian red cross was looking for survivors
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What were the long-term responses to the L'Aquila earthquake?
Residents did not have to pay taxes for 2010, students were given free public transport and were exempt from uni fees for three years. six scientists were found guilty of manslaughter, they had to spend 6 years in prison but were then acquitted
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What was the earthquake in Gorkha, Nepal?
28 april 2015 a 7.8 magnitude earthquake hit at 11:56 AM
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What were the primary effects of the Gorkha earthquake?
8,841 died, 16,800 injured and 1 million made homeless. dharahara tower was destroyed which was a heritage site, 26 hospitals and 50% of school were destroyed, reduced supply of food and water
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What were the secondary effects of the Gorkha earthquake?
triggered an avalanche which killed sherpas and tourists on mount everest. the earthquake happened before monsoon season which means that rice stored in homes was destroyed (rice is nepals staple)
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What were the immediate responses to the Gorkha earthquake?
Temporary shelters were set up, the UK's DEC raised $126 million to provide emergency aid, facebook launched a safety feature, several companies did not charge for telephone calls
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What were the long-term responses to the Gorkha earthquake?
Dunbar heritage sites were reopened to encourage tourists, a recovery phase was started by the united nations to expand crop production, $274 million of aid had been committed to recovery
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Why do effects and responses differ from country to country?
Italy is in the EU and received donations, corrupt governments divert aid, some plate margins are more destructive than others, building infrastructure may vary the damage
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What are the 5 reasons why people would choose to live in hazardous areas
Geothermal energy, farming, mining, tourism and family friends and feeling
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describe why people would live in hazardous areas for geothermal energy?
Geothermal energy is a major source of electrical power in some places, it is renewable and will reduce the effects of climate change
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describe why people would live in hazardous areas for farming
thousands of years after an eruption, the lava releases minerals which act as a fertilizer for the soil
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describe why people would live in hazardous areas for mining
settlements develop where valuable minerals are found eg Kawah Ijen in indonesia where over the past 40 years 74 miners have died from the fumes
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describe why people would live in hazardous areas for tourism
tourists visit volcanoes for the unique views and adventure, more than 100 million people visit volcanic sites each year
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describe why people would live in hazardous areas for family, friends and feeling
people do not wish to leave because friends and family are there, risks may not be seen as dangerous
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How can risks of earthquakes been reduced?
Monitoring and prediction, planning and protection
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How can monitoring and prediction reduce risk of earthquakes?
seismologists use radon detection to measure radon gas in the soil, animals acts weird when earthquakes are pending, seismometers are used to measure foreshocks
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How can planning reduce risk of earthquakes?
furniture can be fastened down, residents can learn to turn of mains gas and water, on 1 september the japanese practice earthquake drills, american red cross provides earthquake checklist
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How can protection reduce risk of earthquakes?
designing buildings and strengthening roads and bridges provides protection this is called mitigation
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How can the risk of volcanic eruptions be reduced by monitoring and prediction?
satellites monitor ground deformation, thermal heat sensors detect changes in temperature, seismometers measure small earthquakes and tremors
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How can the risk of volcanic eruptions be reduced by protection?
buildings cannot be built to withstand the heat or the weight of lava
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How can the risk of volcanic eruptions be reduced by planning?
an evacuation plan is the most effective method of planning, residents can be educated about preventing injury, exclusion zones can be made so no one is allowed to enter
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What is global atmospheric circulation?
the system of worldwide winds that transport heat from tropical to polar areas
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How does global pressure and surface winds influence precipitation?
Rainfall is high and constant, as hot air rises it cools this turns into rain. The ITCZ triggers a burst of torrential rain, sometimes a wave of pressure grows and tropical storms grow around this. cold air has limited ability to hold water vapour
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What is an ITCZ
intertropical convergence zone is an low pressure zone around the equator
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What is a tropical storm?
an area of low pressure with winds moving in a spiral around the calm central point called the 'eye' of the storm. winds are powerful and rain is heavy
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Why are tropical storms distributed where they are?
they are usually found in areas of low latitude, this provides heat and moisture that causes warm air to rise rapidly. they usually occur in summer and autumn when it is hottest
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What are the conditions for a storm to form?
the sea must be 27 C, a depth of 60-70 metres
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What are the 7 steps of tropical storm formation?
.
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Structure and features of a tropical storm?
Image
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Why does a tropical storm spin?
The coriolis effect bends and spins the warm rising air.
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What is the coriolis effect?
where hurricanes in the north bend to the right which causes anticlockwise clouds and cyclones in the south swirl clockwise
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What direction do tropical storms travel?
tropical storms travel east to west
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How might climate change affect the intensity of tropical storms?
tropical storms are expected to become more intense by 2-11% by 2100. The number of 4 and 5 category storms has increased since the 1970's
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How might climate change affect the frequency and distribution of tropical storms?
the frequency of storms is expected to either stay the same, increase or decrease. there are expected to be more 4 or 5 category storms
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How might climate change affect the uncertainty of tropical storms?
predicting the impact of climate change is unreliable.
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How are tropical storms measured?
Using the Saffir- Simpson hurricane wind scale
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What were the primary effects of typhoon Haiyan?
on 8 november 4:40am a category 5 tyhoon struck, winds battered peoples homes, tacloban had a 5m storm surge, damage to rice cost $53 million
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What were the secondary effects of typhoon Haiyan?
there was an 800 000 L oil spill, most of the oil washed ashore destroying 10 hectares of mangroves, fishing at Estancia had to stop, looting was rife, 8 people died in a stampede for rice supplies
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What were the immediate responses to Typhoon Haiyan?
800 000 people were evacuated, within two weeks one million food packs and 250,000 L of water were given out, 33 countries came together to give aid this raised $88.871 million, Beckhams, Apple, FIFA and Walmart raised public donations worth $1.5 bil
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What were the long-term responses to typhoon Haiyan?
a new storm surge warning system, mangroves built, a 'no build zone' along the coast in eastern visayas
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How are tropical storms monitored?
Satellites and Aircraft
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Can tropical storms be predicted?
In 2013 Cyclone Phailin in India was predicted and 1.2 million people were evacuated 21 people died, in 1999 a similar storm occurred and 10 000 people died
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Is protection from tropical storms possible?
install an emergency generator, reinforce garage doors, remove trees close to building, install hurricane straps
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How can planning reduce the risks of tropical storms?
preparing disaster supply kits, storing loose objects, planning with family what to do, having fuel in vehicles
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What kinds of extreme weather events affect the UK?
Storm, flooding, drought and extreme cold
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How have storm events affected the UK?
A cluster of strong depressions caused damage in late 2013. during the jude storm on 28 october, winds killed 5 people felled trees and toppled lorries, the uk has experienced tornadoes and in 2005 a tornado costed £40 million
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How has flooding affected the UK?
Flooding triggers landslides and cause disruption for commuters and financial cost
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How have drought events affected the UK?
in 2003 there was a drought that affected large parts of europe where 20 000 people died,
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How have extremes of cold weather affected the UK?
Frost means crops and cattle may not survive the winter, blizzard conditions means that transport grinds to a halt and freezing conditions mean that over 17 000 trains were cancelled in January 2014
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What were the causes of the Somerset levels flooding?
many of the rivers in the area hadnt been dredged for 20 years, 7 main rivers flow into the area, many buildings were built on the edge of rivers, depressions came from the atlantic, somerset levels are surrounded by hills and slopes
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What were the social impacts of the somerset levels flooding?
600 houses flooded, 16 farms evacuated, many people had no power, residents were evacuated to temporary bathrooms for several months
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What were the economic impacts of the somerset levels flooding?
local roads cut off by floods, bristol to taunton railway closed, somerset county council said the flood cost £10 million, 1000 livestock evacuated
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What were the environmental impacts of the somerset levels flooding?
a huge amount of debris had to be cleared, floodwaters heavily contaminated with sewage, stagnant water had to be re-oxygenated before being pumped back into rivers
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How can dredging reduce risk of flooding?
It reduces silt, clay and rocks from river's bed, in March 2014 8km of the tiver tone were dredged
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How can raising road levels reduce risk of flooding?
This allows business to continue and access for rescue teams in future events
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How can flood defences reduce risk of flooding?
communities most vulnerable will get new water control structures
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How can raised banks reduce risk of flooding?
River banks have been raised an strengthened and more water pumping stations are due to be built
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what is the quaternary period?
it is the period of time from 2.6 million years ago to now
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What is the evidence for climate change?
sea levels have begun to rise by 19 cm since 1900 due to thermal expansion and ice sheets melting, ocean temperatures are warming, since 2002 134 billion tonnes of ice has been lost per year in antartica
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What can proxy data tell us about climate change?
tree rings, fossil pollen, ice cores and ocean sediments tell us what the climate was like and how it has changed
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What do ice cores tell us about climate change?
ice cores act as time capsules because no one lives there now .oxygen isotopes show what the temperature s were like, when ice cores are melted you can compare present co2 and methane levels to now.
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What do ocean sediments tell us about climate change?
organisms and plankton tell us about previous surface temperature and levels of oxygen
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Is climate change a natural phenomenon
climate change has been happening through the Quaternary period but humans have been increasing the rate
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What are the three possible natural causes of climate change?
Oribital, solar output and volcanic activity
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Is solar output a natural cause of climate change?
The overall solar output has decreased in the last 50 years so it cannot be responsible
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Are orbital changes a natural cause of climate change?
The earth's orbit is an eclipse, when the sun gets closer the earth gets warmer. the earth being on an angle means that when the tilt from the moon pulls the climate is exaggerated so summers get warmer and winters get colder.
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Is volcanic activity a natural cause of climate change?
In june 1991 mount pinatubo erupted. ash was carried around the world for three weeks 20 million tonnes of sulphur dioxide was released, when sulphur dioxide mixes with water is turns into aerosols. aerosols reflect sunlight away and reduce heat. -5
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What is the greenhouse effect?
It keeps earth warm enough to habitat, infrared comes in and some heat is reflected back.
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What are the three human causes of climate change?
Fossil fuels, deforestation and agriculture
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How have fossil fuels increased climate change?
burning fossil fuels release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, fossil fuels are used in manufacturing, heating homes and transport. as population grows so does the demand for fossil fuels
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How has agriculture increased climate change?
agriculture amounts to 20% of greenhouse gas emissions, large volumes of methane from the cows and microbes produce it as they decay matter under the flooded rice paddy fields
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How has deforestation increased climate change?
deforestation is done tp clear land for agriculture, logging for wood and paper, building roads to remote areas, making room for urban expansion
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Effects of climate change on environment?
sea level rise in UK, flood risk from heavy rain, 70% of asia may be at risk of flooding, fishing industry in eat asia may decline due to acidic sea and high temp, wildlife declines due to loss of ice, coral reefs may be lost
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Effects of climate change on people?
in europe heat waves may increase deaths but cold weather deaths may decrease, health in south africa would deline because malaria in hot humid areas would be around for longer
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What is mitigation?
action taken to reduce long term risk to human life
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What are the four ways of reducing climate change by mitigation?
Alternative energy production, carbon capture, planting trees and international agreements
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How can alternate energy production reduce climate change?
renewable energy sources reduce volume of greenhouse gases
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How can carbon capture reduce climate change?
carbon capture could produce 55% of carbon mitigation until 2100
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How can planting trees reduce climate change?
deforestation happens at a rate of 13 million hectares a year
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How can international agreements reduce climate change?
2015 paris agreement means that countries agree to reduce global emissions by 40%
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What is adaptation?
actions taken to reduce potential damage and impacts of climate change
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How do changes in agriculture manage climate change?
Moving production to another location due to changing temperatures, changing crops and varieties grown which guarantees more return. this can cost a lot for poor farmers
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How can managing water supply manage climate change?
reducing demand, by 2013 all london homes have been offered a water efficient package, increasing supply, reverse osmosis produces drinking water for 400 000 homes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are different types of natural hazards classified?

Back

tectonic; earthquakes and tsunamis, atmospheric; hurricanes, geomorphological; flooding and biological hazards; forest fires

Card 3

Front

What hazards affect hazard risk?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where are earthquakes and volcanoes located?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do tectonic plates move?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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