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name 5 subcellular structures that both plant and animal have.
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes
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what three things do plant cells have that animal cells dont?
cell wall, permanent vacuole, chloroplasts
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where is the genetic material found in animal cells?
nucleus
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where is the genetic material found in bacterial cells?
plasmids, single strand of DNA
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what type or organisms are bacterial cells?
prokaryotes
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which gives a higher resolution? a light microscope or an electron microscope?
electron
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what is cell differentiation?
the process which a cell changes to become specialised for its job.
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give 3 ways that a sperm cell is adapted for swimming to an egg cell.
long tailed, streamlined head and lots of mitochondria for energy
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what are chromosomes?
your genetic material
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what is the cell cycle?
growth and DNA replication
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what is mitosis used for by multicellular organisms?
split the cell
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give two ways that embryonic stem cells could be used to cure diseases.
embryonic stem cells could be used to replace faulty cells in sick people. also insulin producing cells can be used to treat people with diabetes.
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why might some people be opposed to the use of human embryos in stem cell research?
each one is a potential human life.
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what is diffusion?
diffusion is the spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
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name three substances which can diffuse through cell membranes and two which can't.
can- glucose, amino acids. can't- starch protein.
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what type of molecules move by osmosis?
water
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give the two main differences between active transport and diffusion.
active transport is in plants whereas diffusion is in animals. active transport goes from a low concentration whereas diffusion goes from a low concentration to a high concentration.
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give three adaptations of exchange surfaces that increase the efficiency of diffusion.
the larger the surface area the faster the rate of reaction, only very small molecules like oxygen can diffuse through, big molecules can't get through.
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give two ways that the villi in the small intestine are adapted for absorbing digested food.
single layer of surface cells, very good blood supply to assist quick absorsion.
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explain how leaves are adapted to maximise the amount of carbon dioxide that gets into their cells.
underneath the leaf there is an exchange surface. it's covered in little holes called stomata.
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what is a tissue?
a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a function.
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explain what is meant by the 'organ system'.
a group of organs working together to perform a particular function.
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why can enzymes be described as biological catalysts?
it increases the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in the process.
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why do enzymes only usually catalyse one reaction?
they have special shapes (lock and key theory)
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what does it mean when an enzyme has been denatured?
the active site has changed site.
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describe how you could investigate the effect of pH on the rate of amylase activity.
COMPULSORY PRACTICAL SHEET
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list three places in the human body where amylase is made.
salivary glands, pancreas, small intestine.
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what is the role of lipases?
break down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
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where is bile stored?
gall bladder
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name the solution that you would use to test for the presence of lipids in a food sample.
sudan 111
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name the tubes that split off the trachea.
bronchus
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explain the role that alveoli play is gas exchange.
close to the blood capillary and lots of them.
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explain why the circulatory system in humans is described as a 'double circulatory system'.
because there is two circuits joined together.
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why does the heart have valves?
so blood doesn't go the wrong way back into the heart.
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name the four chambers of the heart.
left atrium, right atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle.
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how is the resting heart rate controlled by a healthy heart?
a group of cells in the right atrium wall that acts like a pacemaker
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how arteries adapted to carry blood away from the heart?
the walls are strong and elastic. as well as this they are thick.
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why do red blood cells not have a nucleus?
it allows them to carry more oxygen.
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give two advantages and two disadvantages of statins.
advantages:reduce the risk of a stroke, can help prevent other diseases. disadvantages: long term drug, negative side effects.
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what is the difference between biological and mechanical replacement heart vales?
biological are talked from other animals such as pigs or cows, mechanical are man made.
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what is meant by a non-communicable disease?:
something which cant spread.
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give an example where different types of disease might interact in the body.
immune system
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what is meant by the risk factor of a disease?
how likely you are to catch a disease
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which type of tumour is cancerous?
malignant
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list the tissues which make up a leaf.
epidermal tissue, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, epidermal tissue.
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what is the function of the phloem?
transport food.
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what is transpiration?
side effect of the way leaves are adapted for photosynthesis.
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list the four main things that affect transpiration.
light intensity, temperature, air flow, humidity.
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how could you measure the rate of transpiration?
measuring the uptake of water by a plant.
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name the type of cell that helps ope and close stomata.
guard cells.
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how can bacteria make us feel ill?
can cause diseases.
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how does tobacco mosaic virus affect a plants growth?
it causes a pattern on the leaves of the plants- which stops photosynthesis
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how are mosquitos involved in the spread of malaria?
when it feeds of another animal it infects it by inserting the protist into the blood vessels.
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what are the symptoms of gonorrhea?
pain while urinating. yellow or green discharge from the vagina or penis.
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how can destroying vectors help stop the spread of disease?
vectors that are insects can be killed with insecticide or destroying habitats.
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what does the stomach produce that can kill pathogens?
hydrochloric acid
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give three ways that white blood cells can defend against pathogens.
consuming them, producing antibodies and producing antitoxins.
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give one pro and one con of vaccinations.
pro-can prevent epidemics. con- don't always work.
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why is it difficult to develop drugs that kill viruses without damaging body tissues?
don't always kill the right bacteria.
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which plant does the painkiller asprin originate from?
willow.
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what two things are tested on during pre-clinical testing?
human cells and tissues.
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what is a placebo?
when patients expects the treatment to work and so feels better even though the treatment isn't doing anything.
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where in a plant cell does photosynthesis take place? .
chloroplasts
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what is an endothermic reaction?
energy is transferred from the environment during the reaction.
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what is the work equation for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide + water =(light)= glucose = oxygen
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why do plants store glucose as starch?
starch is insoluble which makes it easier for photosynthesis.
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what is meant by a limiting factor of photosynthesis?
stops photosynthesis from any faster.
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what would low carbon dioxide concentration have on photosynthesis?
slow rate of photosynthesis.
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in the inverse square law, how are light intensity and distance linked?
light intensity (proportional to) 1/distance^2
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what is respiration?
the process of transferring energy from the breakdown of glucose.
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what is an exothermic reaction?
energy is transferred into the environment during a reaction.
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name the products of aerobic exercise.
carbon dioxide
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Card 2

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what three things do plant cells have that animal cells dont?

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cell wall, permanent vacuole, chloroplasts

Card 3

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where is the genetic material found in animal cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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where is the genetic material found in bacterial cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what type or organisms are bacterial cells?

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