Pain- Cognitive Theory.

Acute Pain.
Specific identifiable tissue damage. Discomfort thats usually temporary- lasts less than 6 months.
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Chronic Pain.
May start with a specific organic acute episode. Lasts for more than 6 months (Sarafino 2011). Can last a lifetime.
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Psychogenic Pain.
Disorders that originate in the mind, rather than an organic cause.
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Organic Pain.
Somatic- confined to body wall or musculoskeletal system. Visceral- Originates from internal organs (stomach, uterus, gall bladder).
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Organic Pain cont.
Nociceptive- Associated with inflammatory and biological processes. Neuropathic- Resulting from current or past damage to peripheral or central nerves.
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Descartes (1644)
Straight channel from skin to brain. Direct stimulus- response. Pain governed by sensation. (Doesnt explain different pain tolerences).
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Vonfrey- Specificity Model (1894).
Direct stimulus- response. Pain governed by sensation. Special pain receptors. (Doesnt explain phantom limb pain).
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Goldshneider Pattern Theory.
Not a specific connection between pain receptors and pain sites in the brain. Result of neural activity. Minimal tactile stimulation= feeling of touch. Stronger tactile stimulation= pain. Pattern of stimulation is coded by CNS.
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Specific factors to pain.
Receptors (nociceptors)- in skin, muscles, arterial walls, surface of joints, surrounding bones and some internal organs. Pain fibres- 2 types- recieves messages from receptors. Classified according to the type of message, size and conduction rate.
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A delta Fibres.
Myelinated and carry instant, short, sharp and well localised pain. Messages sent to spindal cord-initiate reflex response- rapid withdrawal of tissue from source of damage. Messages travel to thalamus then the cortex. Unresponsive to opioids.
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C Fibres.
Impulses slower, less myelination, smaller fibres. Dull, burning, aching pain that is well diffused. Travel to the spinal cord- then to the brain stem- spread to diverse areas of cortex. Can subside with opioids.
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A beta Fibres.
Not directly related to painful stimuli. Activated by touch, rubbing, scratching and warmth. Rapid fast track to the brain. Larger than A delta and C fibres.
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Gate Control Theory (Melzach and Wall 1965).
As pain messages enter the spinal cord, they pass through a 'gating mechanism'. Gating mechanism can be opened and closed to varying degrees. Gate closed impulses are terminated.
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Gate Control Theory cont.
Gate open and the transmission cells are activated. A delta fibres to thalamus and cortex and C fibres to brain stem. Cortex can open and close the gate, lower brain can close the gate.
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Opening and closing of the gate.
Depends on 3 factors. Amount of activity in pain fibres. Amount of activity in the A beta fibres (tend to close the gate). Messages that descend from the brain (modulate the pain message (e.g. Anxiety opens the gate, distraction closes the gate).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Chronic Pain.


May start with a specific organic acute episode. Lasts for more than 6 months (Sarafino 2011). Can last a lifetime.

Card 3


Psychogenic Pain.


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Card 4


Organic Pain.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Organic Pain cont.


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