Pack 6 biology

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  • Created by: LilyIM
  • Created on: 02-03-16 21:22
What are the cause/risk factors of Fibrosis?
Cause is unclear. Evidence suggests its a reaction to a microscopic injury which makes individuals more susceptible.
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What are the symptoms of Fibrosis?
Shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest pain, weakness/fatigue.
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What are the long term affects/treatments?
Scarring creates a larger diffusion pathway. This reduces elasticity, causes less recoil, making it harder to breath and reduces the con gradient.
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What are the causes of Asthma?
Air pollution, exercise, stress, cold air, infection, anxiety. Inflammation of the lining means more mucus secretion, muscles round brochioles contract.
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Symptoms of Asthma?
Breathing difficulties, Wheezing, Tight feeling in chest, coughing.
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Long term affects/treatments of Asthma?
Restricted ventilation, lower concentration gradient, Reduced cellular respiration.
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What are the causes/risks of Emphysema?
The elastic protein is permanently stretched,so there is no recoil. SA is reduced, There are fewer aveoli, larger air spaces and thicker aveoli walls.
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What are the symptoms of Emphysema?
Shortness of breath, chronic cough, Blue hue of skin.
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Long term affects/treatments of Emphysema?
Restricted ventilation, lower con gradient across aveoli cell, longer diffusion distance, reduced cellular respiration.
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What are the cause/risk factors of Tuberculosis?
Causes are bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis , being in close contact with a infected person. If it spreads to the rest of the body it can be lethal.
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What are the symptoms of Tuberculosis?
Bacteria grows in the upper part of the lungs, causing enlarged lymph nodes. Coughing ect.
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What are the long term affects/treatments of Tuberculosis?
It causes cavities in the lungs, scar tissue, coughing up tissue, and it spreading to the rest of the body causes death.
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Whats Ficks law?
Diffusion rate = SA*CG/DD
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What structures are present in the small intestine that help absorption of glucose?
Villi (and on the cells of villi microvilli)
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Why do elephants have large ears?
It means they have a larger SA so they can lose more heat.
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Do animals with a larger SA:V require a higheror lower metabolism? Why?
They have a higher metabolism, because they experience more heat loss, so they need more respiration to maintain their temperature.
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Define respiration
The breakdown of food to release energy.
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Why is spongy mesophyll made up of irregular cells?
To increase SA so there is a faster rate of diffusion.
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In plants describe how oxygen gets into plant cells during dim light.
The rate of photosynthesis is too low to supply respiration with enough oxygen. Oxygen moves in by diffusion. It dissolves in a layer of moisture and moves in a solution into the vacuole.
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What is transpiration?
Evaporation of water from a plant.
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What factors increase rate of Transpiration?
Temperature increase, air flow, and light (when stomata open)
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List the ways Xerophytes are adapted to reduce water loss.
They have a thick, waxy cuticle, sunken stomota, Guard cells-only open at night, leaves have small SA, leaves rolled up, Hairy leaves.
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How do simple celled organisms get Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in/out?
Diffusion.
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Why do simple cells not need a specialized gas exchange system?
They have a large SA:V ratio.
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What feature of a respiratory system is missing in a insect?
Permeable surface- also oxygen is not carried in the blood.
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What happens in a insects body during physical activity?
Anaerobic respiration occurs, Lactate is made increasing solute, water potential in the muscle decreases, water enters muscles by osmosis, Air drawn into Tracheoles Oxygen/carbon D diffuse faster in gas, increased respiration.
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Whats is the advantage of water entering the muscles cells from the Trancheoles?
Deeper penetration of air which has a faster rate of diffusion. therefore more oxygen is made for respiration (muscle contraction)
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State three ways insects can cut down water loss...
Small SA:V, waterproof coating, spiracles.
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Why does the water flow over gills only in one direction and not in/out like a mammal?
Water has a higher density so there entails more work, also makes counter current systems possible.
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What are the three important points around countercurrents?
The blood and water flow in opposite directions, to ensure a constant con gradient, across the whole gill.
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If the exoskeleton of insects is waterproof, where can water escape?
Through spiracles.
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How will the setae reduce water loss?
Lower con gradient by trapping moist air.
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List 4 characteristics of a respiratory surface
Thin, large SA, moist, permeable.
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What is the function of the larynx?
Carries air in/out. Vocal cords vibrate and produces sound.
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What is the role of the Bronchi/bronchioles?
Carries air in/out.
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Explain the structure of the aveoli
Air sacs one cell thick are surrounded by capillaries carry deoxygenated blood from pulmonary arteries. Macrophages also present.
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Describe the six stages of diffusion of oxygen from the alveolus to the red blood cells
Oxygen diffuses through alveolar space, then dissolves in mucus, then diffuses though aveoli cell epithelium, then through capillary cell, then plasma, then semi-permeable membrane of the red blood cell, joins with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin
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When the external intercostal muscles contract how does the ribcage move?
Up and Out
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When the internal intercostal muscles contract how does the ribcage move?
In and down
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What are the short term effects of exercise on breathing?
An increase in breathing rate, depth of breathing,oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide expired air.
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The long term affects?
A expansion in Aveoli, Diaphragm and intercostal muscles get larger, and no. of capillaries in lungs increases.
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Pulmonary ventilation equation?
Tidal volume*breathing rate
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What are the 5 major risk factors of lung disease
Smoking, air pollution, genetics, infections, occupation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the symptoms of Fibrosis?

Back

Shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest pain, weakness/fatigue.

Card 3

Front

What are the long term affects/treatments?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the causes of Asthma?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Symptoms of Asthma?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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