P3- Sustainable Energy

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  • Created by: igapiga25
  • Created on: 08-02-15 21:33
How is energy transferred?
From cells and other sources to the components in the circuit, which then transfer the energy into the environment in the form of sound, sound, heat etc.
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Energy transfer formula*
energy transferred (in joules) = power (in W) x time (in e.g. seconds)
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Energy formula*
energy transferred (in kWh) = power (in kW) x time (in e.g. hours)
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Cost of energy formula*
cost = number of kWh x cost per kWh
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Power of appliances formula*
power (in W) = voltage (in V) x current (in A)
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Efficiency formula*
efficiency = energy usefully transferred / total ergy supplied x 100%
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Sankey diagrams
...
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Efficiency from sankey diagrams formula*
efficiency = useful energy output / energy input
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How do you save energy?
At home, stop heat escaping,insulate the house, buy efficient things, turn off appliances when unused, don't print or photocopy unnecessarily, use public transport or less car use, recycle...
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Non-renewable sources of energy
fossil fuels, nuclear fuels (uranium and plutonium).
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^positives and negatives^
Will run out one day, damege the environment, provide most of our energy.
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Renewble sources of energy
Wind, waves, tides, hydroelectric, solar, biofuels, geothermal.
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^psitives and negatives^
They will never run out, damage the environment but not as much, don't provide much energy, can be unreliable if they depend on the weather.
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Thermal power stations
Energy is released from the fuel (burnt in the boiler) and used to generate steam --> The steam turns the turbine --> A generator converts the movement of the turbine into electricity.
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Environmental problems with fossil fuels
Release carbon dioxide when burnt in power stations (contributes to global warming), coal and gas release sulfur dioxide (cause acid rain), coal mining makes a mess of the landscape, oil spillages cause damage to the environment and life on earth.
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Positives of fossil fuels
Produce a lot of energy, is cheap, doesn't rely on the weather.
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Nuclear power station
Energy is released from the nuclear fuel by nuclear fusion --> The heat energy heats water to make steam --> The steam turns the turbine --> A generator converts the movement of the turbine into electricity.
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^positives^
Nuclear reactions release a lot more energy than chemical reactions, a NPS doesn't produce carbon dioxide when making electricity, nuclear fuel is relatively cheap.
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^negatives^
Produce radioactive waste- can be very dangerous and difficult to dispose as it emits ionising radiation and stays radioactive for a long time,irradiation, contamination, needs extra safety precautions, take longest time out of all PS to start up.
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Positives of wind power
Each turbine has its own generator, no pollution, no permanent damage to landscape as can be removed.
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^negatives^
Spoil the view,many turbines to replace a power station which needs a lot of ground,can be very noisy, no power when wind stops, high initial costs.
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Positives of solar power
Generate electricity directly from sunlight, no pollution, free energy.
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^negatives^
Expensive initially, a reliable source of energy only in daytime.
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Positives of wave energy
Provide an up and down motion that can directly drive the turbine that then drives a generator, no pollution, useful on small islands.
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^negatives^
Need lots around the coast, spoiling the view, hazard to boats, fairly unreliable as waves stop when there's no wind, high initial costs, never likely to provide energy on a high scale.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Energy transfer formula*

Back

energy transferred (in joules) = power (in W) x time (in e.g. seconds)

Card 3

Front

Energy formula*

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cost of energy formula*

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Power of appliances formula*

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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