# P3-Sustainable Energy Revision

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• Created by: ElishaG
• Created on: 24-05-16 18:36
What is something that supplies electricity also doing?Give examples.
Supplying energy.Cells, batteries, generators etc. transfer energy to wire, then transferred to components/devices in circuit.
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What does the power of an appliance tell you?
How fast it transfers energy.
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What is power usually measured in?
Watts(W) or kilowatts(kW). 1kW=1000W
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What does a light bulb convert electrical energy into?
Light and heat energy.
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What would 100W mean?
100 joules of energy are transferred every second.
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What does a kettle convert electrical energy into?If the kettle has 2.5kW, how many joules are her per second?
Heat. 2500 Joules every second.
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What is the formula for how much energy is transferred in joules?
Energy transferred(J)= Power(W) x Time(S).
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What is a kilowatt-hour and why do we use it?
kWh = the amount of energy converted by a 1kW appliance in 1 hour. Used at watts are too small.
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What is the formula for the amount of energy transferred in kWh?
Energy transferred (kWh) = Power(kW) x Time(hours).
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How do you work out the cost if using an appliance?
Cost= Number of kWh x Cost per kWh.
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What does an appliance with a high power do?
Transfer a lot of energy in a short time.
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What is the formula for power in Watts?
Power(W) = Voltage(V) x Current(A).
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How do you work out the efficiency of something?
Efficiency= (Useful energy/Total energy)x 100%
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True or False- Power stations are very efficient?
False- they produce lots of waste energy (heat and noise). Some energy lost as heat in wires
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How can we all help reduce energy usage?
By reducing the amount of energy we use everyday.
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What are ways reduce heat transfer and stop energy from being wasted at home?
1)Cavity wall and loft insulation, double glazing, draught proofing.2)Fibre glass wool hot water tank jacket and thicker curtains-both cheap.3)Efficient appliances, energy saving light bulbs, switch things off.
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How can workplaces save energy?
1)Not printing/photocopying unnecessarily.2)Cycle, car-sharing and public transport to get to work-staff rewarded.
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How do the government encourage people to save energy?
1)offer grants for better insulation.Trade old boilers.Improve public transport.2)Invest in alternate energy sources,improve recycling, make efficiency laws.
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What is an example of a secondary source?
Electricity.
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What is an example of a primary source?
Coal, nuclear fuel, wind power.
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Why is electricity convenient?
It can be transmitted over long distances via the National grid and can be used in many different ways.
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Give examples of non-renewable energy sources.Explain what non-renewable energy means.
1)Fossil fuels(coal,oil,natural gas).2)Nuclear fuels(uranium and plutonium). They will all run out. All do damage to environment.Currently provide most of our energy.
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Give examples of renewable energy sources. Explain what this means.
1)Wind.2)Waves.3)Tides.4)Hydroelectric.5)Biofuels.6)Geothermal.7)Solar. Will never run out.Do damage to environment-not as bad as non-renewables. Don't provide much energy.Weather dependent.
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What are thermal powerstations?
Power stations that use primary energy sources to heat water.
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What happens in a thermal power station?
1)Energy released from fuel(usually by burning in boiler) and used to generate steam.2)Steam turns turbine.3)Generator converts kinetic energy into electricity.
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What do all three fossil fuels release when burned?
Carbon dioxide. Coal and oil release sulfur dioxide-causes acid rain.
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Why don't people support coal mining?
Makes a mess of landscape, especially open cast mining.
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Why might oil be a problem for the environment?
Oil spillages, affect mammals and birds that live in and around the sea.
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What are the positives of using fossil fuels?
1)Produce lots of energy relatively cheaply.2)Don't rely on weather.3)Already have lots of fossil fuel power stations.
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How do nuclear power stations release energy?
By splitting atoms.
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Explain nuclear power stations.
1)Nuclear fission produces heat- atoms in nuclear fuel split into two, releasing lots of energy.2)Water used as coolant to take heat produced away to produce steam to drive turbine etc.
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Do the 4 steps of a nuclear power station.
1)Energy released from nuclear fuel by nuclear fission.2)Heat energy heats water to make steam.3)Steam turns a turbine.4)Generator converts kinetic energy into electricity.
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What are the advantages of nuclear power?
1)Lot more energy released than chemical reactions(like burning).2)Doesn't produce CO2.3)Nuclear fuel relatively cheap.
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What are the disadvantages of Nuclear power?
1)Radioactive waste can be very dangerous and difficult to dispose of as it emits ionising radiation for long time: Increased exposure means more damage to cells.High doses cause radiation sickness.Lower doses can cause cancer.
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Being exposed to radiation without coming into contact with the source. Lower dose, damage to body stops as you leave radioactive waste area.
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What is contamination?
Coming into contact with radioactive waste, e.g. touch,breathing,drinking etc. Still be exposed once you've left area, causes more damage.
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What are extra safety precautions needed for nuclear power?
1)Waste needs to carefully be disposed of(buried underground). Area needs to be tested for soil and water contamination.2)Workers tested for radiation exposure.
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Explain Wind power.
1)Lots of wind turbines in exposed places,e.g. moors or coasts.2)Each turbine had own generator.3)No pollution(except for manufacture).4)Spoil view 1500=1 coal station.5)Can be noisy.6)Need wind.7)Initial cost high, minimal running cost.
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Explain solar cells.
1)Solar cells generate electric currents from sunlight.Initially expensive.Used for calcs and watch.2)Used in remote places to power signs and satellites.3)No pollution-except manufacturing.4)Need sun.5)Low running cost.6)Used small scale, e.g. homes
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Explain wave power.
1)Need lot of small wave powered turbines around coast.2)Waves drive turbine, then drives generator.3)No pollution-spoil view,hazard to boats.4)Fairly unreliable-need wind.5)Initial cost high, minimal running cost.
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Explain tidal barrages.
1)Big dams built across estuaries with turbines in them.2)As tide comes in, water level rises, turns turbines.3)Source of energy is gravity of sun and moon.4)No pollution,spoils view,no boat access.5)Tides reliable but not always same height....
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Tidal barrages continued.
Excellent for storing energy for peak demands.6)Initial costs moderately high, no fuel cost, minimal running cost.
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What are biofuels made from?
Plants and waste.
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Describe biofuels.
1)Renewable energy sources, used in thermal power station, burnt to heat water.2)Used in some cars.3)Can be solids(straw+woodchips)liquids(ethanol) and gases (methane).4)Relatively quick and carbon neutral.5)Forests cleared to grow biofuels.
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What is geothermal energy?
Heat from underground.
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Describe the use of geothermal energy to make electricity.
1)Only possible where hot rocks near surface.2)Water pumped to hot rocks and evaporated(thermal power station).3)Free,renewable,no environmental problems.4)Main issue-cost of drilling.5)Few places where it's an option economically.
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Describe hydroelectricity.
1)Requires flooding valley by building bug dam.Rainwater caught and goes out through turbines.2)No pollution.3)Flooding valley has big impact on environment.Rotting vegetation releases CO2,loss of habitat.4)Immediate response to increase in demand.
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What are the costs for hydroelectricity like?
Initially high, no fuel and minimal running costs.
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What are the 3 stages of the hydroelectricity progress?
1)Water stored in reservoir above turbines using dam.2)Gravity causes water to rush through and turn turbines.3)Generator converts movement into electricity.
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Why are renewable sources not the perfect energy source?
Struggle to produce same output as other power stations.
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Where do we get half of our coal and uranium from?
It's imported, makes us dependent on other countries. Need to pay for transport and transport releases CO2.
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Approximately how long will it be before our fossil fuels run out?
50 years.
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Which types of energy have the lowest running costs?
Renewable, no fuel involved.
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Which type of resources have bigger setup costs?
Renewable need bigger power stations than non-renewables for same output.Bigger power station, more expensive.
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Why do nuclear reactors,hydroelectric dams and geothermal power stations more expensive?
Engineering needed, bumps up cost.
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Which types of power stations have waste and air pollution?
Coal, Oil, Gas,Nuclear.
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Which types of power stations have carbon dioxide?
Coal, Oil, Gas.
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Which types of power stations have visual pollution?
Coal, Oil, Gas, Nuclear, Tidal, Waves, Wind, Hydroelectric, Geothermal.
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Which types of power stations use up resources?
Coal, Oil, Gas, Nuclear.
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Which types of power stations have noise pollution?
Coal, Oil,Gas ,Wind.
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Which types of power stations cause disruption of habitats?
Hydroelectric, Tidal, Biofuels.
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Which types of power stations disrupt leisure activities?
Waves, Tidal.
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How can you create a voltage in a conductor.
By moving a magnet in or near a coil of wire- called electromagnetic induction.
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What happens to the magnetic field as the magnet is moved?
It changes, the changes induces a voltage if the circuit is complete.
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What do generators use electromagnetic induction to do?
Turn kinetic energy from turbines in power stations into mains electricity.
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What do you do to the magnet if you want a bigger voltage and current?
Turn the magnet faster, to do this you needs more of the primary energy source.
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What is the national grid?Where does it move electrical energy to and from?
A network of pylons and cables that covers the whole of Britain.Takes electricity from power stations to homes and industry.
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Why is electricity distributed at high voltage (400,000 volts)?
It's cheaper and more efficient. Voltage reduced before it goes into homes.
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What is the voltage of mains supply voltage?
230V.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What does the power of an appliance tell you?

#### Back

How fast it transfers energy.

### Card 3

#### Front

What is power usually measured in?

### Card 4

#### Front

What does a light bulb convert electrical energy into?

### Card 5

#### Front

What would 100W mean?