P2: Living for the future

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  • Created by: Theex
  • Created on: 29-04-14 15:59
What material are photocells made of and what is a property of that material?
Silicon, which is a semi conducter
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What 3 things does the power output of a photocell depend upon?
SA, light intensity, distance from light source
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3 advantages of photocells?
Low maintenance (no moving parts), no fuel needed, renewable energy
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What type of current is created by photocells?
Direct Current
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What is the name to describe heat something directly from the Sun's light?
Passive solar heating
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How does the Sun create wind?
Heats atmosphere causing convection currents
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3 advantages of wind power?
No polluting waste, renewable, cheap (wind is free)
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6 disadvantages of windpower?
Sometimes wind is fast enough, hard to locate them, expensive set up cost, can't increase supply, visual and noise pollution and 1500 turbines = 1 coal power station
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Describe the three stages of making electricity in power stations
1. Fuel is burnt turning water to steam 2. moving steams drives blades of turbine 3. generator uses EMI to turn Ek into electricity
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An advantage of fossil fuels?
Concentrated - release a lot of energy
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3 disadvantages of fossil fuels?
Little control on price and supply, causes acid rain and produces CO2, they're running out
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2 advantages of biomass fuels?
Renewable, carbon neutral
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2 disadvantages of biomass fuels?
Lots of it needed to = 1 lump of coal, takes up room to grow
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Define: Electromagnetic induction
The induction of a voltage/current in a wire which is experiencing a change in magnetic field
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3 ways to alter size of current induced?
Change magnet strength, change number of turns on coil of wire and change speed of movement
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What type of current is produced by a generator?
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Why is electricity and a high voltage (400 000V) while in the national grid?
Because it decreases the current which reduces energy loss
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Define: kilowatt - hour
The amount of electrical energy converted by a 1kW appliance which is left on for 1 hour
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2 advantages of off peak power?
Cost effective for companies, cheap for consumers
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2 disadvantages of off peak power?
Risk of fire, might stop using electricity during day
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What wavelength is the EM radiation the sun emits?
Short wavelength
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What wavelength is the EM radiation the Earth re-emits?
Long wavelength
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What are the three main greenhouse gases?
Carbon dioxide, Methane and water vapour
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3 ways humans are increasing CO2 levels?
Increased combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation (less photosynthesis) and increased population increase people respiring
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2 ways humans are increasing methane levels?
Increase in cattle farming, more waste
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How are water vapour levels increasing?
Evaporation from seas and rivers, power station produce small amounts
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2 human causes for temperature change?
Increased CO2 from combustion and soot and gases (produced by factories) reflect heat back to Earth
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2 natural causes for temperature change?
Ash and gas from volcanoes reflect heat back, changes in orbit around the Sun
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Describe alpha radiation
Big and heavy (2 protons and 2 neutrons, don't penetrate well, highly ionising
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Describe beta radiation
Fast moving electrons, moderately penetrating and ionising
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Describe gamma radiation
No mass or charge, take energy away from nucleus, highly penetrating and weakly ionising
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Name a use of alpha radiation
smoke detectors (you should know how this works)
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Name 2 uses of beta radiation
Tracers and thickness gauges (you should know how these work)
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Name 3 uses of gamma radiation
Treat cancer (chemotherapy), sterilise medical equipment, non-destructive testing
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What type of nuclear reaction happens in nucleur power plants?
Nuclear fission - atoms split in two
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4 advantages of nuclear power?
lots of energy without lots of CO2, more energy, cheap fuel, high availability
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7 disadvantages of nuclear power?
Expensive to build and maintain, long time to start up, processing uranium causes pollution, risks of radioactive material leaking, hard to dispose of, decommisioning is expensive, uranium is non-renewable
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How is high-level radioactive waste disposed of?
Its sealed in a glass block, which is then sealed in a metal canister which can then be buried deep underground
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What 2 things are important to consider when burying radioactive waste?
Has to be geologically stable and complaints from near by residents
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What shape is the orbit of a planet?
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Describe what affects the strength of a gravitational field?
object size the bigger the object the stronger the force and the further away the object is the weaker its force
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What is the name for a force that causes circular motion
Centripetal force
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What prevent the formation of a planet where the asteroid belt is?
The large gravitational field of Jupiter
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3 ways of knowing when an meterotie has collided with Earth
Craters, unusual elements and change in fossil numbers (mass extinction)
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What is the orbit shape of a comet?
A highly elliptical shape
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Define: NEOs
Near Earth objects - asteroids or comets that could collide with Earth
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Formation of the moon?
Mars sized planet collided with Earth, their cores fused together creating the large core we have now and debris was ejected into space. The debris orbitted Earth and eventually came together to form the moon
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Define: a light year
The distance light travels in a vacuum in 1 year - 9,460,000,000,000km
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What are 9 issues with manned space travel?
Long time, lots of fuel, hard to keep them alive, need to carry oxygen, food and water, regulation of temperature, removal of waste, need shield from radiation, muscle wastage, pschologically stressfull
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5 advantages of unmanned space travel?
No need to carry oxygen, food and water, can withstand lethal conditions, more room for equipment, cheaper, no ones is hurt if it crashes
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2 disadvantages of unmanned space travel?
Can't think for itself, can't do maintenance and repairs
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What is the evidence for the big bang?
Red shift - everything is moving away, cosmic background radiation
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What was the name of the Ancient Greek model of the solar system?
Ptolemaic model
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What did the Copernican model say the solar system was like?
Earth and planets orbit Sun in perfect circles, the Sun was the centre of the Universe
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What did Galileo observe to support the Copernican model?
Jupiter's moons and the phases of Venus
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What 3 things does the power output of a photocell depend upon?


SA, light intensity, distance from light source

Card 3


3 advantages of photocells?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What type of current is created by photocells?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the name to describe heat something directly from the Sun's light?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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