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Same everywhere
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Each component's resistance adds up to total resistance
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Same across all components
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Parallel Current
Shared between branches
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Mains frequency
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Mains voltage
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Cars are wired in
parallel so all components get the full voltage from battery and can be turned/on/off separately
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Mains is ____ current Batteries are ____ current
AC vs. DC
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Colour of live wire
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Colour of neutral wire
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Colour of earthed wire
Green and yellow
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Thicker cables have
less resistance
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If fault develops and live wire touches metal case
Flows out of earth wire.
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Circuit breakers are
more expensive, faster, more convenient, easily replaced
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RCCBs work by
Diff different current between live and neutral wires. RCCB Detects difference and cuts off power. Might work for current change too small to melt fuse.
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Uses of radiation:
1) Smoke detectors, ionisation causes current setting off alarm 2) Tracers in medicine short half life Beta or Gamma emitters 3) Radiotherapy- kill cancer cells 4) Sterilisation of food and surgical instruments: gamma.
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Penetration power alpha
stopped by air, paper
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Penetration power beta
stopped by aluminium sheet
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Penetration power gamma
stopped by lead
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Safety with radiation
don't allow skin contact, lead aprons, arms length away
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Star life cycle stages
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Stage 1
Initially form clouds of dust and gas. Force of Gravity makes gas and dust spiral in together. Forming PROTOSTAR.
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Stage 2
Gravitational energy converted to heat so temperature rises.
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Stage 3
Temperature high enough hydrogen nuclei undergo fusion to form helium nuclei and give out heat and light.
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Stage 4
Hydrogen begins to run out. Heavier elements e.g. Iron are made by fusion of Helium. Then swells into red giant or super red giant. Is red because surface cools.
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Stage 5
If small/medium then becomes unstable and ejects outer layer of dust and gas becoming planetary nebula.
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Stage 6
Leaving behind hot dense solid core. White dwarf. Cools to black dwarf.
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Stage 7
Very large stars undergo more fusion and expand and contract, forming iron. Explodes in supernova.
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Stage 8
Outer layers dust and gas thrown out leaving very dense core, neutron star or black hole.
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reaction time
time between driver spotting hazard and taking action
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thinking distance
distance vehicle travels during driver's reaction time
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braking distance
distance car travels under breaking force
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crumple zones at front and back of car
crumple on impact, cars KE converted into other energy as car changes shape, and increased impact time decreasing force produced by change in P
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seat belts
increased time taken for wearer to stop reducing forces acting in chest. Some KE is absorbed by belt stretching.
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Card 2




Same everywhere

Card 3




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Card 4




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Card 5


Parallel Current


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