P1h: Stable Earth

Waves carry information. The information can be extracted even from naturally occurring waves, such as seismic waves generated within the Earth. Some waves are potentially harmful tol iving organisms. The incidents of skin cancer are rising, even in the UK. This item develops ideas surrounding these and other observations. It also examines how climate is being affected by natural and human activity. 

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What do earthquakes produce?
Shock waves
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What can shock waves produced by earthquakes be detected by?
Seismometers
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What can shock waves produced by earthquakes be recorded on?
Seismograph
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What can shock waves produced by earthquakes cause?(3)
Damage to buildings and the Earth's surface, and a tsunami
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What five things can exposure to ultraviolet radiation cause?
Suntan, sunburn, skin cancer, cataracts and premature skin ageing.
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What do suncreams do?
Reduce damage caused by ultra-violet radiation
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What do higher factor suncreams mean?
Reduces the risks and causes less damage from ultraviolet radiation, and can stay out in the sun longer.
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What discovery was unexpected?
The reduction of ozone levels over Antartica
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What are the two types of seismic waves?
transverse S and longitudinal P waves
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What can transverse S waves do?
Waves which travel throughout solids but not through liquids and travel slower than P waves
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What can longitudinal P waves do?
Waves which travel throughout both solids and liquids and travel faster than S waves
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How can data on seismic waves transmitted through the Earth can be used to provide evidence for it's structure?
P waves travel through solid and liquid rock.When P-waves pass from solid to liquid, then from liquid to solid, there are sudden changes in direction. The waves are refracted.S waves cannot travel through liquid rock.
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Why does darker skin reduce skin cancer?
The skin absorbs more ultraviolet radiation, and less ultraviolet radiation reaches underlying body tissue
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What happens to the sped of P and S waves as they travel deeper into the mantel?
It increases. They travel through the Earth in curved paths, but they change direction suddenly when they pass through the boundary between substances in different states.
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How do you work out the amount of time somebody can spend in the sun?
(How long they can usually stay in the sun without burning) x (spf)
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How are people informed about the risk of exposure to the ultraviolet radiation?
Through the media and advertising campaigns, and the government tells people how to stay safe to improve public health (sun beds)
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How does the ozone layer protect the Earth?
The ozone layer is the part of the upper atmosphere where ozone is found in the highest concentrations. The ozone there absorbs ultraviolet radiation, preventing most of it from reaching the ground.
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Talk about the effects of environmental pollution from CFCs depleting the ozone layer.
It allows more ultraviolet radiation to reach the Earth and therefore the potential dangers to human health increases.
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What three things explain how scientists verified their measurements of ozone reduction and increase the confidence in explanations.
Measurements repeated with new equipment and by different scientists, and predictions are tested based on explanations.
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What has the discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer over Antarctica led to?
The international community has banned them. They are used in hairsprays and coolants for fridges. Now international bans and restrictions on CFC use have been put in place because of their environmental impact
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What can shock waves produced by earthquakes be detected by?

Back

Seismometers

Card 3

Front

What can shock waves produced by earthquakes be recorded on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can shock waves produced by earthquakes cause?(3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What five things can exposure to ultraviolet radiation cause?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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