P1B

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What are all the non-renewable resources?
Coal, Oil, Natural gas, Nuclear fuels
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What is the problem with renewable energy resources?
don't provide much energy, may be unreliable due to weather
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What are the basic features of boilers in power stations?
fossil fuel burned to convert chemical to heat. heat up water to produce steam. steam turns turbine, heat into kinetic. attached to generator, kinetic into electrical
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How is a nuclear power station different to a normal one?
It involved the nuclear fission of uranium or plutonium producing the heart to drive the turbines
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Tell me about wind power.
generators inside turbines generate electricity from wind
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What are the advantages of using wind power?
no pollutio, no fuel costs, minimum running costs, no permanent damage
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What are the disadvantages of using wind power?
spoil the view, very noisy, unreliable, impossible to increase supply when extra demand, initial costs high
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What are the advantages of solar cells?
no pollution, very reliable in sunny countries, energy free, no running costs,
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What are the disadvantages of solar cells?
lot of energy to manufacture, initial costs high, not practical and too expensive for national grid
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How does hydroelectric power work?
through falling water. flooding of a valley by building a big dam, rainwater caught and allowed out through turbines.
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What are the advantages of hydroelectric power?
no pollution, immediate response to increased demand, no fuel, minimal running costs
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What are the disadvantages of hydroelectric power?
impact on environment, flooding of valley (rotting vegetation releases methane and CO2), loss of habitat, look bat when dried up, unreliable in drought
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Why is there a surplus of energy every night?
Most large power stations have big boilers which have to run all night even though demand is low
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What is pumped storage?
'spare' night time electricity is used to pump water up to a higher reservoir, can be released quickly during periods of peak demand, to supplement the steady delivery
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What is wave power?
small, wave-powered turbines located around coast, waves provide up and down motion which can be used to drive a generator
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What are the advantages of wave power?
no pollution, no fuel costs, minimal running costs
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What are the disadvantages of wave power?
spoil view, hazard to boats, initial cost high
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What are tidal barrages?
big dams built across river estuaries, turbines in them. as tide comes in, fills up estuary an drives turbines. water allowed out through turbines at controlled speed
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What are the advantages of tidal barrages?
no pollution, reliable (tides happen twice a day), no fuel costs, minimal running costs, significant amount of energy
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What are the disadvantages of tidal barrages?
prevent free access by boats, spoil view, alter habitat, initial costs high
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What is geothermal energy?
volcanic areas where hot rocks lie near to surface. source of heat is slow decay of radioactive elements in earth. steam and hot water rise to surface and drive generator
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What are the advantages of geothermal energy?
no environmental problems, free, can heat buildings directly
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What are the disadvantages of geothermal energy?
not very many suitable locations, cost of building high
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How are fossil fuels bad for the environment?
release CO2, release sulfur dioxide, coal mining destroys habitats, oil spills
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How is nuclear power linked to environmental problems?
nuclear waste dangerous and difficult to dispose of, carries risk of situation like Chernobyl
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How are biofuels bad for the environment?
deforestation, loss of habitat, decay and burning of vegetation increases CO2 and methane
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What is carbon capture?
collect Co2 from power stations before release into atmosphere. pumped into empty gas and oil fields under sea. stored without adding to greenhouse effect.
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Why are coal and oil fired power stations being replaced by gas fired?
they're quick to set up, a lot of gas left, doesn't pollute as bad
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What factors do you need to consider when looking at options for a new power station?
set up and running cost, building time, power generation, damage to environment, impact on communities
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What does potential difference mean?
Voltage
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What is the national grid?
takes electrical energy from power stations to homes and industry
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What do you need to transmit a huge amount of power?
high voltage or high current
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What is the problem with a high current?
you lose a lot of energy through heat in the cables
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What does the national grid to make it cheaper?
boost voltage up to 400,000 V to keep current low
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How does the national grid boost the voltage so high?
step up transformers step voltage up for efficient transmission, then step down reduce it to bring it down to safe, usable levels
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Advantages of overhead cables?
lower set up cost, easy to access, easy to set up, minimal disturbance to land
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Disadvantages of overhead cables?
lots of maintenance needed, ugly, affected by weather, less reliable
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Advantages of underground cables?
minimal maintenance, hidden, not affected by weather, more reliable
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Disadvantages of underground cables?
higher set up cost, hard to access, hard to set up, lots of disturbance to land
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How can supply be increased and demand be reduced?
more power plants, increase power output // energy efficient appliances, don't waste energy
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What is the amplitude of a wave?
displacement from a rest position to a crest
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What is wavelength of a wave?
distance from crest to crest
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What is the frequency?
the number of complete waves produced by a source each second
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What vibrations do transverse waves have?
Sideways
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What are some examples of transverse waves?
light, EM waves, slinky spring
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Define transverse waves.
vibrations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer of the wave
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Give some examples of longitudal waves.
sound waves, ultrasound, shock waves
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Define longitudal waves
the vibrations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer of the wave
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What is the equation for wave speed?
speed = frequency x wavelength
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How can the direction of the travel of waves be changed?
reflection, refraction, diffraction
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What is reflection?
light travelling in the same direction reflects from an uneven surface, light reflects off at different angles
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When do you get a clear reflection?
light travelling in the same direction reflects from an even surface (smooth shiny mirror) all reflected at same angle
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What is the law of reflections?
angle of incidence = angle of reflection
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What is diffraction?
waves spreading out at the edges when they pass through a gap or pass an obstacle
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The narrower the gap, the longer the wavelength..
the more the wave spreads out
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What is refraction?
when a wave crosses a boundary between two substances
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Waves are only refracted if...
they meet the new medium at an angle
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What happens if the wave meets the new medium with the angle of incidence as 0?
they will change speed but are not refracted
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EM waves with different wavelengths have...
different properties
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How do all EM waves travel?
at the same speed, in a vacuum
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How long are radio wavelengths?
longer than 10cm
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What do longer radio wavelengths do?
Diffract
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What does the diffraction effect in long radio waves mean?
makes it possible for the signal to be recieved even if not in direct contact with transmitter
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Why can short wave radio signals be transmitted at long distance?
because they are reflected from the ionosphere
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Why do you have to be in direct sight of transmitter for TV and FM radio?
very short wavelengths
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What do you need to transmit to and from satellites?
Microwaves
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Why do people think mobile phones damage your health?
Some wavelengths of microwave are absorbed by water molecules and heat them up. Water in your cells
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How do remotes work?
emitting different patterns of infrared to send different commands
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How do optic fibres work?
signal carried as pulses of light or infrared and reflected off sides of a very narrow core from one end of fibre to another
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What are sound waves caused by?
vibrating objects
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Why can't sound travel through space?
Because its a vacuum
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What is frequency?
The number of complete vibrations per second
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Describe the doppler effect.
Frequency of sound moving towards you seems higher and wavelength shorter. And vice versa.
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What do measurements of red shift suggest?
all galaxies are moving away from us. more distant galaxies have greater red shift
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What is uniform microwave radiation and what does it suggest?
low frequency electromagnetic radiation coming from all parts of everywhere. CMBR. big bang theory explains it as hot explosion gives off radiation.
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Why is big bang theory not believed?
doesn't explain what caused it or conditions before
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the problem with renewable energy resources?

Back

don't provide much energy, may be unreliable due to weather

Card 3

Front

What are the basic features of boilers in power stations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is a nuclear power station different to a normal one?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Tell me about wind power.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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