# P1 Waves

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• Created by: KAustria
• Created on: 11-06-14 12:27
What do we use waves for?
We use waves to transfer energy and information.
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In what direction does energy travel in a wave?
The direction of travel of the wave is the direction in which the wave transfers energy
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Describe energy transfer in transverse waves
The oscillation (vibration) of the particles is perpendicular (at right angles) to the direction in which the waves travel
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Describe energy transfer in longitudinal waves
The oscillation of the particles is parallel to the direction of travel of the wave.
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What are longitudinal waves made up of?
Compressions and rarefactions.
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When a longitudinal wave passes through air, what happens to the air particles at a compression?
They are pushed closer together.
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Describe electromagnetic waves.
These are waves that can travel through a vacuum 2. There are no particles in an electromagnet wave as the waves are oscillations in electric and magnetic fields. 2. perpendicular to the direction of travel - transverse waves
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Describe mechanical waves
1. Eaves on springs and sound waves 2. Travel through a medium (substance) 3. Mechanical waves may be transverse or longitudinal.
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What type of wave is a sound wave?
Longitudinal.
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What type of wave can be produced on a stretched spring?
Transverse wave and mechanical
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What is the amplitude of a wave?
The height of the wave crest or the depth of the trough position from the position of rest.
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How can you tell if alot of energy is being carried by a wave?
The greater the amplitude of the wave, the more energy it carries.
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What is the wavelength of a wave?
The distance between from one crest to the next crest, or from one trough to the next trough.
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What is the frequency of a wave?
The frequency of the wave is the number of wave crests passing a certain point pers second.
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hat is frequency measured in?
Hertz, Hz
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How can you calculate the speed of a wave?
v (speed in m/s) = f (frequency in hertz,Hz) x Wavelength in metres.
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What is the speed of waves with a frequency of 5 Hz and a wavelength of 2 m?
10m/s
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What is the wavelength of a longitudinal wave?
The distance from the middle of one compression to the middle of the next compression. Same as rarefractions.
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What is the frequency in longitudinal wave?
The number of compressions passing a point in one second.
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Why can we see an image in a mirror?
This is due to the reflection of light.
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What is the incident ray and reflection ray in a mirror?
The incident ray is the ray of light going into the mirror and the reflection ray is the one coming away from the mirror.
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Where do you draw the line normal?
Perpendicular to the mirror at the point the incident ray hits the mirror.
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What in the angle of incidence?
The angle between the incident ray and the normal
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What is the angle of reflection?
The angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
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What is the law of reflection?
This states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
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Give the 4 main characteristics of an image in a plane mirror?
1. The same size as the object 2. Upright 3. Virtual 4. The same distance behind the mirror as it is infront of the mirror.
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What is a real image?
Images that can be projected onto a screen because the rays of light that produce the image actually pass through it.
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What is a virtual image?
Images that cannot be projected onto a screen because the rays of light only appear to pass though it when in reality it doesn't
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What happens to a wave when it crosses a boundary between two substances?
1. Speed of the wave changes 2. Wavelength changes 3. Frequency of the wave stays the same.
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In what waves can refraction take place?
Refraction is a property of all waves- including light and sound.
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The change in speed of the wave creates an effect on another aspect of the wave. What is this?
As the speed changes, the direction of travel is also changed.
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What happens when a wave enters a more dense substance such as air to glass?
The speed of the wave slows down and the the direction of wave is changes towards the normal.
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What happens when a wave enters a less dense substance such as glass to air?
The speed of the wave increases and the direction of travel is away from the normal.
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What happens when a wave is travelling along a normal?
The direction of the wave will not change.
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Why does light split up into different colours when it passes through a triangular prism?
Different colours of light have different wave lengths, and are refracted by slightly different amounts.
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What colour light is refracted the most?
Violet light
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What colour light is refracted the least?
Red light
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What is diffraction?
Diffraction is the property of all waves and it is when waves spread out once they pass through a gap round an obstacle.
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Why don't we often observe the diffraction of light during everyday life?
Because the wavelength of light is very short.
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What typeof waves are Tv signals carried by?
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Why do people who live on hills may struggle to receive a signal?
This is because signals are blocked by a hill. Radio waves will diffract around the hill but if they do not diffract enough they radio or TV signals will be poor.
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Describe sound waves
1. Caused by mechanical vibrations in a substance and travel as waves
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What can and can't sound waves travel through?
Sound waves can't travel through vacuum's. Sound Waves can travel through solid liquids and gases.
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Out of the 3 states, what can sound travel the fastest and slowest through?
Sound travels fastest in solids and slowest in gases.
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How can you prove that sound waves cannot travel through solids?
Listening to a ringing bell in a 'bell jar'.
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What is the range of frequencies that can be heard by a human. And what effects this?
20Hz to 20 000Hx. The ability to hear declines with age.
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What happens when sound waves are reflected?
They can produce echoes. But only on hard, flat surfaces such as flat walls and floors reflect sound.
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What happens when an empty room is padded with soft materials?
Sound waves cannot be reflected as they absorbed by the soft materials
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How can sound waves are refract?
Refraction takes place in sound waves between layers of air at different temperatures.
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What does a pitch of a note depend on?
The frequency of a sound wave. the higher the frequency of a sound wave, the higher the pitch.
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What does the volume of a sound depend one?
Volume depend on the amplitude of the sound wave. The greater the amplitude of the sound wave, the more energy the wave carries and the louder the sound.
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What can you use to show the differences in wave form?
An oscilloscope/
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What do tuning forks and sinal generators produce?
'pure' waveforms
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What does the quality of the note depend on?
Depends on the waveform
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Whyo different instruments sound different when they play the same note.
Because they have different wave forms
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

In what direction does energy travel in a wave?

#### Back

The direction of travel of the wave is the direction in which the wave transfers energy

### Card 3

#### Front

Describe energy transfer in transverse waves

### Card 4

#### Front

Describe energy transfer in longitudinal waves

### Card 5

#### Front

What are longitudinal waves made up of?