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What are the three ways heat energy can be transferred?
Radiation, conduction and convection.
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Which state of matter allows for conduction?
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Which states of matter allows for convection?
Liquid and gases.
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What is infra red radiation?
An electro magnetic wave which is emitted from the surface of all objects all the time.
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Does a cooler object emit more or absorb more infra red radiation than it emits?
A cooler object absorbs more than it emits and a hotter object emits more.than it absorbs.
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What kind of surfaces are the best for emitting and absorbing radiation?
Dark, Matt surfaces.
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Why might solar hot water panels have a matt surface over the water pipes?
The black surface will absorb more radiation and heat the water in the pipes.
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What is conduction?
The process where the vibrating particles pass on their extra kinetic energy to neighbouring particles
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What type of solids will be better for conduction?
Denser objects because their particles are close together so there will be more collisions.
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Why does a metal part of a spade feel warmer than the wooden part after being left in the sun?
The metal part conducts radiation into your hand much quicker so your hand warms up quicker, the metal part isn't actually hotter.
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Why are metals good conductors?
They have free electrons which can collide with other free electrons.
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What is convection?
When particles with more energy move from a hotter region to a cooler region (and take their energy with them).
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How does an immersion heater work?
Particles gain heat energy from heater coils, this means more energy so move faster, water gets less dense, hotter particles rise and push cooler ones down, then cycle continues.
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What is the name given of the process happening when in the immersion heater?
Convection currents.
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What is condensation?
Gas to liquid, gas particles slow down as they cool so they are pulled closer together and it becomes a liquid.
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What is evaporation?
liquid to gas, liquid is heated so particles near the surface get more energy, if it is moving in the right direction with enough energy to overcome the forces it will escape the liquid
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Why can condensation be useful?
When warmer particles leave it causes the average particle energy to decrease so temperature decreases, this is used by humans when we sweat.
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Name three things that effect the rate of heat transfer.
Surface area(bigger will emit and absorb quicker), volume(small volume will cool quickly) and material(good insulator or not).
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What is a U value?
How fast heat can transfer through a material.
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Name five methods of insulation in your home?
Loft insulation, hot water tank jacket, double glazing, draught proofing, cavity wall insulation.
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What is specific heat capacity?
The amount of energy needed to hear up one kilogram of something by one degrees.
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What is the formula for Specific heat capacity?
E = M x c x Θ (temp change).
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Why do maetials in heaters have a high specific heat capacity?
So they can store large amounts of energy.
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Give the nine types of energy.
Electrical, light, sound, kinetic, nuclear, thermal(heat), Gravitational potential, elastic potential and chemical.
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What is the conversation of energy principle?
Energy can be transferred usefully from one form to another, stored or dissipated(lost or spread out) - but it can never be created or destroyed.
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What makes energy useful?
When energy can be converted from one form to another.
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What makes a machine more efficient?
Less energy it wastes when transferring it to another from of energy.
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Why is a heater 100% efficient?
All of the energy is transferred into heat so none is wasted.
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How can we make the wasted heat energy useful again?
cool water is pumped through the escaping heat which raises the temp in the water, the energy in the water can be transferred into something useful again.
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What kind of diagram can we use to see the efficiency of machines?
Sankey diagrams.
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What is power?
How fast something can transfer energy.
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What is a kilowatt hour?
The amount of electrical energy used by a 1 kw appliance left on for one hour.
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How much energy would a 5000Kw appliance transfer in a second?
5000 joules a second.
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Give 4 examples of non-renewable energy resources.
Coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear fuels e.g. uranium.
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Give 8 examples of renewable energy resources.
Solar, wind, hydroelectric, waves, tidal, geothermal, food, biofuels.
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What are the main stages in a power station?
fossil fuel is burned to convert chemical energy to heat, heat is used to heat water to produce water into steam, the steam then turns a turbine which converts the heat into kinetic, which spins a turbine converting it to electrical.
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Describe a wind turbine.
Wind directly spins a generator, no pollution, ruin the scenery becuase you need lots, noisy, unreliable and no permanent damage.
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describe solar panels.
electrical energy from sunlight, used in remote places, usually used on small scales, no pollution, high initial cost but no running charge, reliable in certain countries.
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Describe hydroelectric poer
rain collected in a damn and spins a turbine then generator, no pollution, causes loss of habitat, rotting vegetation produces lots of methane in the dam, high initial cost,
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Describe wave power.
Wave push air up to spin a turbine, no pollution, unreliable, high initial cost.
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Describe tidal barrages.
Tide comes in and spines the turbine, no pollution, blocks passages for boats, reliable, high initial costs not running charge, good for storing energy.
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Describe geothermal energy.
steam and hot water rises to spin a turbine, only possible in some areas, no environmental problems, high costs.
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Describe biofuels.
Plant and waste materials are burnt to heat water and spin a turbine, can cause pollution e.g. methane but are carbon neutral.
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What is a carbon capture?
C02 is captured and stored before released in the atmosphere, pumped in to empty gas fields under the sea safely or dissolved in the sea.
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Name 4 things you have to compare when looking at power resources.
Set up cost, reliability, environmental issues and running cost (fuel).
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What is the national grid?
A network of pylons and cables that take electricity to homes ect.
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Why do we step up the voltage?
high current would lose lots of energy through heat, so its cheaper to boost the voltage high and current low.
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Give some disadvantages of Over head cables.
Need lots of maintenance, ruin land scape, affected by weather and not as reliable as underground ones.
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Give some disadvantages of underground cables.
High cost compared to overhead, hard to access faults, hard to set up
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give the 5 main parts of a wave.
Wavelength, amplitude, crest, trough and rest position.
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In a transverse wave the vibrations are ...?
Perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer of the wave vibrations side to side).
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In a longitudinal wave the vibrations are ...?
Parallel to the direction of energy transfer of the wave (compressions moving back and forward
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Give and example of a longitudinal wave and a transverse wave.
Sound is longitudinal and light is transverse.
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Angle of incidence = ?
angel of reflection.
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How do you draw a ray diagram.
Draw the virtual image equal position on the other side of the mirror, then draw a ray from eye to mirror with a dotted line to the virtual image, then a ray from top of object to mirror,draw another ray from bottom of eye.
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What is diffraction and what effects the amount of diffraction?
When a wave spreads out through a gap, the size of the gap relative to the wavelength (gap same size as wavelength=maximum diffraction).
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What is refraction?
Wave enters new medium, changes speed which changes its direction.
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Why are radio waves used for communication?
Long wave length radio waves can diffract around large objects and diffract(bend) around the earth.
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Where would short wave length radio waves be used?
Tv because they reflect off the atmosphere (ionosphere).
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Where would infra red waves be used?
In a Tv remote and optical fibres.
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Describe a sound wave.
The vibrations happen in the same direction as the sound wave and they have compressions.
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What two things can sound waves do?
Reflect and refract.
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What is an echo?
A reflected sound wave.
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What happens to the pitch as you increase the frequency of the sound wave.
The higher the frequency the higher the pitch.
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What happens to the light of a distant galaxy?
Its light is red shifted, chemicals absorb different frequencies of light and leave black lines on the visible spectrum, light from distant galaxies is lower frequencies so pushed towards the red.
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What is the doppler effect?
As something moves towards you the wavelength is shorter so higher frequencies, and as something moves away the wavelengths are longer so lower frequencies.
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How does red shift provide evidence that the universe is expanding?
More distant galaxies are more red shifted, so galaxies are moving away from us faster than nearer ones.
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Whats the first thing that happened according to the big bang theory?
All matter and energy was compressed into a small space then exploded and started expanding (14 billion years ago).
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What is CMBR?
Cosmic microwave background radiation, all objects emitted highh frequency radiation and as the universe expands, it cools so the frequency of the radiation had dropped and is now microwave radiation.
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Name three things that do not support the Big Bang theory.
The universe's expansion is speeding up when it should be slowing down, doesnt explain the conditions to make the explosion happen and cant explain what it was like before.
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Card 2


Which state of matter allows for conduction?



Card 3


Which states of matter allows for convection?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is infra red radiation?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Does a cooler object emit more or absorb more infra red radiation than it emits?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Thank you for these! I think I used your c1 Cards too and they're so useful!

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