# P1

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• Created by: elseey
• Created on: 07-04-14 09:03
What is the equation for working out Specific Heat Capacity?
Energy = Mass x Specific Heat Capacity x Temperature Change
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What is Specific Heat Capacity?
It's a measurement of how much energy a substance can store
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Specific Heat Capacity is the..
..amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of substance by 1 degrees celcius
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What is Specific Latent Heat?
The energy needed for a substance to change state
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What is the equation for working out Specific Latent Heat?
Energy = Mass x Specific Latent Heat
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Specific Latent Heat of melting is..
..the amount of energy needed to melt 1kg of material without changing its temperature
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Specific Latent Heat of boiling is..
..the amount of energy needed to boil 1kg of material without changing its temperature
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Conduction of Heat is..
..the process where vibrating particles pass on extra kinetic energy to neighbouring particles
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Convection of Heat is..
..when the more energetic paricles move from the hotter region to the cooler region - and take their kinetic energy with them
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..the transfer of heat through infared waves that travel in straight lines at the speed of light
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Why are matt black surfaces good for absorbing heat radiation?
They help to emit heat radiation
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Why are white and shiny surfaces poor for absorbing heat radiation?
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Name three ways of saving energy in the home.
Double Glazing Windows; Cavity Walls and Insulation; Draught Proofing; Thick Curtains; Hot Water Tank Jacket; Loft Insulation
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How do you work out annual saving?
Annual Saving = Initial Cost / Payback Time
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How do you work out Efficiency?
Efficiency = Useful Energy Output / Total Energy Output (x 100%)
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Efficiency is..
..how efficient a machine is i.e. how much energy put into the machine is actually USEFUL
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Waves have a..
..Amplitude, Wavelength and Frequency
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Amplitude is the..
..displacement from the rest position to the crest
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Wavelength is the..
..length of a full cycle of the wave e.g. from crest to crest
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Frequency is the..
..number of complete cycles passing a certain point, per second. It is measured in hertz (Hz)
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What is the equation for working out Wave Speeds?
Speed = Frequency x Wavelength
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1 kilohertz is..
..1000 Hz
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1 megahertz is..
..1,000,000 Hz
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What is the law of reflection?
Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection
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What is Total Internal Reflection?
Where a wave hitting a surface has an angle of incidence bigger than the critical angle, therefore the waves are internally reflected
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What is Diffraction?
When a wave spreads out (difracts) at the edges when they pass through a gap or object
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What is Refraction?
When a wave passes through a boundary where there are two different densities e.g. Glass to Air
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In terms of Refraction, Less Dense --> More Dense =
The wave bends towards the normal angle
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In terms of Refraction, More Dense --> Less Dense =
The wave bends away from the normal angle
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What are the seven types of Electromagnetic Wave?
Radiowaves; Microwaves; Infared; Visible Light; Ultra Violet; X-Rays; Gamma Rays
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What happens as you go up the Electromagnetic Spectrum?
Frequency Increase and Wavelength Decreases
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Name two different ways of communication with Light.
Morse Code; Optical Fibres
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Name two advantages of communicating with Light.
It is very rapid way to communicate (at the speed of light); Multiplexing - Lots of different signals can be sent down a single opitcal fibre at the same time; It is digital - therefore little interference
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What properties does a Laser have?
All waves are in phase with eachother; All waves in a beam are the same frequency and wavelength; Monochromic - One single pure colour; Low Divergence - the beam is narrow and stays narrow (unlike a torch)
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Name three uses of Infared.
Cooking in Toasters and Grills; Remote Controls; Transmit Information between Computers and Mobiles; Security Systems
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How are short wave signals communicated?
They reflect off the ionosphere
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How are long wave signals communicated?
They diffract (bend) around the earth
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Name some pros and cons of DAB.
Less interference than traditional FM radio; More stations available because of less interference; Sound quality is often worse because the signal is compressed; not many DAB transmitters so some areas cant recieve signal
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Name the two types of Seismic Wave.
P-Waves & S-Waves
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P-Waves are..
..Longitudinal, and they travel through solids and liquids, and are faster than S-Waves
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S-Waves are..
..Transverse, and they only travel through Solids, and are slower than P-Waves
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They deplete the ozone layer, which protects us from UV rays
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Why is the depletion of the ozone bad?
It allows more UV rays to enter the atmosphere, which causes Skin Cancer, and damages the DNA in our cells
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What is Specific Heat Capacity?

#### Back

It's a measurement of how much energy a substance can store

### Card 3

#### Front

Specific Heat Capacity is the..

### Card 4

#### Front

What is Specific Latent Heat?

### Card 5

#### Front

What is the equation for working out Specific Latent Heat?