P1 - The Earth and the Universe

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How many planets orbit our sun, and what order are they in?
8 - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
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Which are the inner and outer planets? Where is the asteroid belt?
Inner - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars - Asteroid Belt - Outer - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
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What is the difference between a asteroid and a comet?
A comet is a small lump of rock, dust and ice which orbits the sun in very elongated elipses. A comets tail is the melting ice tailing behind it. Asteroids are found in tthe asteroid belt and are mostly rock - they never formed a planet
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How old do scientists think the Universe, Sun and Earth are?
14000, 5000, 5000 million years,
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How was the Solar System formed?
long time - cloud of dust and gas - gravity - prostar- fusion - hydrogen and helium - masses of heat and light energy - sun - fusion of different nuculei formed other atoms - elements clumped together to form planets.
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How old are the oldest rocks on earth and where did they come from?
They are meteroites from space that crashed into Earth that were about 4500 million years ago so we know the solar system is at least that old.
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What do planets refract, reflect, absorb or transmit the suns light?
They reflect the light from the sun
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Where is our solar system in the milky way?
Our Solar System is halfway along one of the miky ways spiral arms.
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Roughly how many times larger is the diameter or the Milky Way to the diameter of the Sun?
600 billion times.
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What is a light year?
The distance light travels in a vaccum in a year. It is a measure of distance not time
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How can scientists measure how far a star is?
Parallax angles, luminosity
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What problems are there in the atmosphere that effect how we can investigate stars?
The atmosphere absorbs quite a lot of light before it reaches us, light pollution, objects in the way
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What is the speed of light and all other electromagnetic radiation?
300 000 km/s or 3x10^8 m/s
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Why do we see stars and galaxies aas they were in the past?
Because the light we see from them has to have time to reach us. For example, we see the sun as it was 8 minutes ago, because the light from the sun takes 8 minutes to reach Earth.
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The nearest star to the sun in 4.2 light years away. How long does the light take to reach us? How long ago do we see the star?
4.2 years (ago)
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What is the evidence for the universe is expanding?
Red-shift, bang theory, CMBR
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What is red-shift?
As a galaxy moves further away, the waveength of the light changes to become more redder. By seeing how much light has been red shifted you can measure how faast the galaxy is moving away from us. THE GREATER THE DISTANCE TTHE FASTER IT IS MOVING
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What was the big bang and when did it happen?
14 000 MY ago a big explosion that was the creation of our universe
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Where do most earthquakes and volcanoes occur?
At the boundaries between two tectonic plates
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How are volcanoes, mountains, and earthquakes formed?
earthquakes - plate move sideways.......mountain - plate move towards each other and go up.........volcano when plate move apart and magma rise up to form new rock.
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What is the rock cycle?
volcano-lava-new rock(igneous)- erosion - abrasion - transportation - sedimentry - fossils - heat and pressure - metamorphic - lava
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What is the evidence for Wegeners thery of continental drift?
for - fossils of similar plants and animals found on both sides of atlantic ocean, coastlines matched, layers of rocks on different continents were the same - one super continent called Pangea
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What were the reasons against Wegeners theory for continental drift?
The movement of the continents wasn't detectable, he wasn't a geologist, he was a meteorologist
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What is sea-floor spreading?
Magma rises us through the sea floor, and solidies to form new rok, at a few cm per year so the continets move apart and support Wegenrs theory. (magnetic strips form because of the iron in the rock aligns with changing magnetic poles.
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What are the layers of the Earth structure?
Crust-mante(solid/liquid)-outer core(liquid) - solid inner core-
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What is the different between a P-wave and a S-wave?
P-WAVES-solids and liquids, faster, primary, longitudinal. S-WAVES - only Solids, Slower, secondary, transverse
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How do we know about the strcture of the Earth?
When there is an Earthquake, the s-waves can't travel through the liquid outer core so leaves a core shadow. We know there is a solid inner core because of the way the waves bend through different mediums.
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What is the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves?
Transverse waves vibrations are at 90 degrees to the direction of travel, and longitudinal waves the vibrations are along the same direction as the wave is travelling.
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On what type of wave would you find a rarefaction?
Longitudinal
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What are the waves from an earthquake called and how are they measured?
Seismic waves and are measured in seismographs or with a seisometer by seimologists. The unit is in Hertz (Hz)
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wavespeed=????x????
wavespeed(m/s)=frequency(Hz)xwavelength(m)
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A radio wave has a wavelength of 3m. What is its frequency?
wavespeed=frequencyxwavelength frequency=wavespeed/wavelegnth frequency=3x10^8m/s /3m frequency=1x10^8Hz = 100MHz
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which are the inner and outer planets? Where is the asteroid belt?

Back

Inner - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars - Asteroid Belt - Outer - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

Card 3

Front

What is the difference between a asteroid and a comet?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How old do scientists think the Universe, Sun and Earth are?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How was the Solar System formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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