# p1 physics

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what is conduction?
The transfer of heat from a hotter area to a cooler area through a solid.
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What happens when you heat a metal rod?
The particles start to vibrate more and transfer these vibrations to other particles transferring the heat energy. Known as conduction
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What is convection?
Movement of heat from a hotter region to a cooler region with movement of the substance as a whole, the water at the bottom expands as it heats up before the water from up above and then rises cools and sinks again
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An electromagnetic wave, it does not need particles it can travel through any medium
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What is specific heat capacity?
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of the material by 1 degrees
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What is specific latent heat?
The amount of energy needed to melt or boil 1kg of a substance
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What is the difference when cooking with microwaves and cooking with infrared waves?
Microwaves absorbed by molecules in outside layers increasing their kinetic energy, they penetrate about 1cm into food Infrared is absorbed by all particles on the surface increasing their kinetic energy energy transferred to center by c and c
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What happens to light when placed infront of a more/ less optically dense material?
more: refracts and bends towards the normal, Less: bends away from the normal
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How can diffraction and interferance affect microwave signals?
Diffraction of microwaves, limited distance between transmitters, high positioning of transmitters or an obstacle affecting signal.
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How are radio signals sent around the earth?
They can be reflected, refracted or diffracted, long distance communication depends on but it depends on the reflection of waves from the ionosphere
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How candiffraction and interferance affect radio signal?
Refraction at different layers of the earths atmosphere and diffraction by transmission dishes
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What are the advantages of digital signal?
they are clearer and less suceptible to noise, carry digital signals using elctromagnetic waves,carry more info due to multi plexing
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What is TIR total internal reflection?
When light hits a boundary above the critical angle, the light is reflected and bounces back instead of being refracted
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Talk about whether the beams are in phase and their divergence? White light beams
NOT IN PHASE
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MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT SOURCE
IN PHASE, DIVERGENCE
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LASER LIGHT SOURCE
IN PHASE, LOW DIVERGENCE
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All waves in a laser are?
the same frequency and in phase with eachother
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Explain why and how lasers are used in CD players?
by reflection from the shiny surface, surface contains digital information,information is in the form of the pits.
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Properties of S waves?
transverse, slow moving, travel through solids only
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Properties of Pwaves?
Longidtudional, fast moving, travel through liquids and solids.
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Why cant S waves travel through liquid rock the core layer of earth?
Because the rock is made from hot liquid and S waves cannot travel through liquid
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What happens when you heat a metal rod?

#### Back

The particles start to vibrate more and transfer these vibrations to other particles transferring the heat energy. Known as conduction

### Card 3

#### Front

What is convection?

### Card 5

#### Front

What is specific heat capacity?