P1 AQA Keywords

Infrared radation
Electromagnetic waves between visible light and microwaves in the electromagnetic spectrum.
1 of 101
Give out radiation.
2 of 101
A substance that takes in radiation.
3 of 101
A substance that gives out radiation
4 of 101
A substance that reflects radiation.
5 of 101
A state of matter in which the particles vibrate around fixed positions.
6 of 101
A state of matter in which the particles are in contact with each other but can move about at random.
7 of 101
A state of matter in which the particles are usually far apart and move about at random quickly.
8 of 101
Transfer of energy from particle to particle in matter.
9 of 101
Material/ object that conducts.
10 of 101
Free electron
Electron that moves about freely inside a metal and is not held inside an atom.
11 of 101
Material/ object that is a poor conductor.
12 of 101
Transfer of energy by the bulk movement of a heated fluid.
13 of 101
A liquid or a gas.
14 of 101
Convection current
The circular motion of matter caused by heating fluids.
15 of 101
Turning from a liquid into a vapour.
16 of 101
The degree of hotness of a substance.
17 of 101
Turning from a vapour into a liquid.
18 of 101
Temperature difference
Difference in temperature between two points.
19 of 101
Make as big as possible.
20 of 101
Make as small as possible.
21 of 101
Specific heat capacity
Energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1 degree Celcius.
22 of 101
The quantity of matter in an object.
23 of 101
Energy transfer
Movement of energy from one place to another or one form to another.
24 of 101
Solar heating panel
Sealed panel designed to use sunlight to heat water running through it.
25 of 101
Kinetic energy
Energy of a moving object due to its motion.
26 of 101
Electrical energy
Energy transferred by the movement of electrical charge.
27 of 101
Gravitational potential energy
Energy of an object due to its position in a gravitational field.
28 of 101
Elastic potential energy
Energy stored in an elastic object when work is done to change its shape,
29 of 101
Chemical energy
Energy of an object due to chemical reactions in it.
30 of 101
Conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
31 of 101
A device that transfers energy from one place to another or one form to another.
32 of 101
Useful energy
Energy transferred to where it is wanted in the form it is wanted.
33 of 101
Wasted energy
Energy that is not usefully transferred.
34 of 101
Joule (J)
The unit of energy
35 of 101
Input energy
Energy supplied to a machine.
36 of 101
Useful energy transferred by a device divided by total energy supplied to the device.
37 of 101
Sankey diagram
An energy transfer diagram
38 of 101
The energy transformed or transferred per second (measured in watts).
39 of 101
Watt (W)
The unit of power.
40 of 101
Kilowatt (kW)
1000 watts.
41 of 101
Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
Electrical energy supplied to a 1kW electrical devise in 1 hour.
42 of 101
Cost effectiveness
How much something gives value for money when purchase, running and other costs are taken into account.
43 of 101
Payback time
Time taken for something to produce savings to match how much it cost.
44 of 101
A machine that uses hot gas or steam to turn a shaft.
45 of 101
A machine that produces a voltage.
46 of 101
Fossil fuel
Fuel obtained from long-dead biological material.
47 of 101
Fuel made from animal or plant products.
48 of 101
Nuclear fission
The process in which nuclei split into two fragments, releasing energy and two or three neutrons as a result.
49 of 101
Renewable energy
Energy from sources that never run out including wind energy, wave energy, tidal energy, hydroelectricity, solar energy and geothermal energy.
50 of 101
Disturbance in water.
51 of 101
Rise and fall of sea level because the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun.
52 of 101
Solar energy
Energy from the Sun.
53 of 101
Solar cell
Electrical cell that produces a voltage when in sunlight (usually connected together in solar cell panels).
54 of 101
Solar power tower
Tower surrounded by mirrors that reflect sunlight onto a water tank at the top of the tower.
55 of 101
Geothermal energy
Energy from hot underground rocks.
56 of 101
Something which cannot be replaced once it is used up.
57 of 101
National Grid
The network of cables and transformers used to transfer electricity from power stations to consumers (i.e. homes, shops, offices, factories, etc).
58 of 101
Step-up transformer
Electrical device that is used to step up the size of an alternating voltage.
59 of 101
Step-down transformer
Electrical device that is used to step down the size of an alternating voltage.
60 of 101
Base load
Constant amount of electricity generated by power stations.
61 of 101
Start-up time
Time taken for a power station to produce electricity after it is switched on.
62 of 101
Transverse wave
Wave in which the vibrations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.
63 of 101
Moving to and fro about a certain position along a line.
64 of 101
At right angles.
65 of 101
Longitudinal wave
Wave in which the vibrations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.
66 of 101
Squeezed together.
67 of 101
Stretched apart.
68 of 101
Electromagnetic wave
Electric and magnetic disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another.
69 of 101
Mechanical wave
Vibration that travels through a substance.
70 of 101
The height of a wave crest or a wave trough of a transverse wave from the rest position.
71 of 101
The distance from one wave crest to the next wave crest (along the waves).
72 of 101
The number of wave crests passing a fixed point every second.
73 of 101
Distance moved divided by time taken.
74 of 101
Plane mirror
A flat mirror.
75 of 101
Straight line through a surface or boundary perpendicular to the surface or boundary.
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Angle of incidence
Angle between the incident ray and the normal.
77 of 101
Angle of reflection
Angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
78 of 101
Real image
An image formed where light rays meet.
79 of 101
Virtual image
An image, seen in a lens or a mirror, from which light rays appear to come after be refracted by the lens or reflected by the mirror.
80 of 101
Line along which two substances meet.
81 of 101
The change in direction of a light ray when it passes across a boundary between two transparent substances (including air).
82 of 101
The spreading out of waves when they pass through a gap or around an obstacle that has a similar size as the wavelength of the waves.
83 of 101
A form of mechanical energy.
84 of 101
Reflected sound wave (that can be heard).
85 of 101
The pitch of a sound increases if the frequency of the sound increases.
86 of 101
Gamma ray
The highest energy wave in the electromagnetic spectrum.
87 of 101
High energy wave from part of the electromagnetic spectrum between gamma rays and ultraviolet waves.
88 of 101
Ultraviolet radiation
Electromagnetic radiation just beyond the blue end of the visible spectrum.
89 of 101
Electromagnetic spectrum
A set of radiations that have different frequencies and wavelengths but all travel at the same speed in a vacuum.
90 of 101
Wave speed
Speed of travel of a wave.
91 of 101
Visible light
The part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye.
92 of 101
A low energy wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum that are used in communications.
93 of 101
Radio wave
Longest wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum.
94 of 101
Part of the radio and microwave spectrum used for communications.
95 of 101
Optical fibre
The glass fibre used to send light signals along.
96 of 101
Doppler effect
The change in wavelength and frequency of the waves from a moving source due to the motion of the source towards or away from the observer.
97 of 101
Increase in wavelength of the electromagnetic waves emitted by a star or galaxy due to its motion away from us. The faster the speed of the star or galaxy, the greater the red-shift is.
98 of 101
Decrease in wavelength of electromagnetic waves emitted by a star or galaxy due to its motion towards us. The faster the speed of the star of galaxy, the greater the blue-shift is.
99 of 101
Big Bang theory
The theory that the universe was created in a massive explosion from a small initial point and that the universe has been expanding ever since.
100 of 101
Cosmic microwave background radiation
Electromagnetic radiation that has been travelling through space ever since it was created shortly after the Big Bang.
101 of 101

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Give out radiation.



Card 3


A substance that takes in radiation.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


A substance that gives out radiation


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


A substance that reflects radiation.


Preview of the back of card 5
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