P1 AQA Keywords

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Infrared radation
Electromagnetic waves between visible light and microwaves in the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Emit
Give out radiation.
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Absorber
A substance that takes in radiation.
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Emitter
A substance that gives out radiation
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Reflector
A substance that reflects radiation.
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Solid
A state of matter in which the particles vibrate around fixed positions.
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Liquid
A state of matter in which the particles are in contact with each other but can move about at random.
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Gas
A state of matter in which the particles are usually far apart and move about at random quickly.
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Conduction
Transfer of energy from particle to particle in matter.
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Conductor
Material/ object that conducts.
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Free electron
Electron that moves about freely inside a metal and is not held inside an atom.
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Insulator
Material/ object that is a poor conductor.
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Convection
Transfer of energy by the bulk movement of a heated fluid.
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Fluid
A liquid or a gas.
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Convection current
The circular motion of matter caused by heating fluids.
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Evaporation
Turning from a liquid into a vapour.
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Temperature
The degree of hotness of a substance.
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Condensation
Turning from a vapour into a liquid.
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Temperature difference
Difference in temperature between two points.
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Maximise
Make as big as possible.
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Minimise
Make as small as possible.
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Specific heat capacity
Energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1 degree Celcius.
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Mass
The quantity of matter in an object.
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Energy transfer
Movement of energy from one place to another or one form to another.
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Solar heating panel
Sealed panel designed to use sunlight to heat water running through it.
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Kinetic energy
Energy of a moving object due to its motion.
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Electrical energy
Energy transferred by the movement of electrical charge.
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Gravitational potential energy
Energy of an object due to its position in a gravitational field.
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Elastic potential energy
Energy stored in an elastic object when work is done to change its shape,
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Chemical energy
Energy of an object due to chemical reactions in it.
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Conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
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Machine
A device that transfers energy from one place to another or one form to another.
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Useful energy
Energy transferred to where it is wanted in the form it is wanted.
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Wasted energy
Energy that is not usefully transferred.
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Joule (J)
The unit of energy
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Input energy
Energy supplied to a machine.
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Efficiency
Useful energy transferred by a device divided by total energy supplied to the device.
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Sankey diagram
An energy transfer diagram
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Power
The energy transformed or transferred per second (measured in watts).
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Watt (W)
The unit of power.
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Kilowatt (kW)
1000 watts.
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Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
Electrical energy supplied to a 1kW electrical devise in 1 hour.
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Cost effectiveness
How much something gives value for money when purchase, running and other costs are taken into account.
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Payback time
Time taken for something to produce savings to match how much it cost.
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Turbine
A machine that uses hot gas or steam to turn a shaft.
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Generator
A machine that produces a voltage.
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Fossil fuel
Fuel obtained from long-dead biological material.
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Biofuel
Fuel made from animal or plant products.
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Nuclear fission
The process in which nuclei split into two fragments, releasing energy and two or three neutrons as a result.
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Renewable energy
Energy from sources that never run out including wind energy, wave energy, tidal energy, hydroelectricity, solar energy and geothermal energy.
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Wave
Disturbance in water.
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Tide
Rise and fall of sea level because the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun.
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Solar energy
Energy from the Sun.
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Solar cell
Electrical cell that produces a voltage when in sunlight (usually connected together in solar cell panels).
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Solar power tower
Tower surrounded by mirrors that reflect sunlight onto a water tank at the top of the tower.
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Geothermal energy
Energy from hot underground rocks.
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Non-renewable
Something which cannot be replaced once it is used up.
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National Grid
The network of cables and transformers used to transfer electricity from power stations to consumers (i.e. homes, shops, offices, factories, etc).
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Step-up transformer
Electrical device that is used to step up the size of an alternating voltage.
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Step-down transformer
Electrical device that is used to step down the size of an alternating voltage.
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Base load
Constant amount of electricity generated by power stations.
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Start-up time
Time taken for a power station to produce electricity after it is switched on.
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Transverse wave
Wave in which the vibrations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.
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Oscillation
Moving to and fro about a certain position along a line.
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Perpendicular
At right angles.
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Longitudinal wave
Wave in which the vibrations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.
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Compression
Squeezed together.
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Rarefraction
Stretched apart.
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Electromagnetic wave
Electric and magnetic disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another.
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Mechanical wave
Vibration that travels through a substance.
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Amplitude
The height of a wave crest or a wave trough of a transverse wave from the rest position.
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Wavelength
The distance from one wave crest to the next wave crest (along the waves).
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Frequency
The number of wave crests passing a fixed point every second.
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Speed
Distance moved divided by time taken.
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Plane mirror
A flat mirror.
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Normal
Straight line through a surface or boundary perpendicular to the surface or boundary.
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Angle of incidence
Angle between the incident ray and the normal.
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Angle of reflection
Angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
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Real image
An image formed where light rays meet.
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Virtual image
An image, seen in a lens or a mirror, from which light rays appear to come after be refracted by the lens or reflected by the mirror.
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Boundary
Line along which two substances meet.
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Refraction
The change in direction of a light ray when it passes across a boundary between two transparent substances (including air).
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Diffraction
The spreading out of waves when they pass through a gap or around an obstacle that has a similar size as the wavelength of the waves.
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Sound
A form of mechanical energy.
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Echo
Reflected sound wave (that can be heard).
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Pitch
The pitch of a sound increases if the frequency of the sound increases.
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Gamma ray
The highest energy wave in the electromagnetic spectrum.
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X-ray
High energy wave from part of the electromagnetic spectrum between gamma rays and ultraviolet waves.
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Ultraviolet radiation
Electromagnetic radiation just beyond the blue end of the visible spectrum.
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Electromagnetic spectrum
A set of radiations that have different frequencies and wavelengths but all travel at the same speed in a vacuum.
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Wave speed
Speed of travel of a wave.
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Visible light
The part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye.
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Microwave
A low energy wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum that are used in communications.
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Radio wave
Longest wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Band
Part of the radio and microwave spectrum used for communications.
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Optical fibre
The glass fibre used to send light signals along.
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Doppler effect
The change in wavelength and frequency of the waves from a moving source due to the motion of the source towards or away from the observer.
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Red-shift
Increase in wavelength of the electromagnetic waves emitted by a star or galaxy due to its motion away from us. The faster the speed of the star or galaxy, the greater the red-shift is.
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Blue-shift
Decrease in wavelength of electromagnetic waves emitted by a star or galaxy due to its motion towards us. The faster the speed of the star of galaxy, the greater the blue-shift is.
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Big Bang theory
The theory that the universe was created in a massive explosion from a small initial point and that the universe has been expanding ever since.
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Cosmic microwave background radiation
Electromagnetic radiation that has been travelling through space ever since it was created shortly after the Big Bang.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give out radiation.

Back

Emit

Card 3

Front

A substance that takes in radiation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A substance that gives out radiation

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A substance that reflects radiation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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