# P1

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Define temperature. What is it measured in?
A measure of how hot or cold something is. It is measured in degrees celcius.
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Define heat. What is it measured in?
How much (kinetic) energy an object contains. This is measured in Joules (J).
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What is specific heat capacity?
The amount of heat energy required to cause a temperature rise of 1℃ in 1kg of the material.
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How can a cooling curve be used?
To find melting and boiling points using SHC and SLH.
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What is specific latent heat?
The energy required to change the state of a unit mass of the substance without change of temperature.
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How does conduction work?
Particles in a solid are always vibrating and when heated, they vibrate more as they have more energy. Kinetic energy is transferred from one particle to its neighbour and so on.
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Why are some materials good conductors?
Their particles are close together in a regular pattern and the vibrations are passed on easily.
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Why are liquids and gases poor conductors?
They have irregular patterns of arrangement.
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How does convection work?
Air particles gain more energy, they begin to move more and this region of air expands, causing the density to decrease. The cooler air is denser so it sinks while the hot air rises.
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What is the density equation?
Density = mass/volume
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What surfaces are good at absorbing and emitting IR?
Dark, matt surfaces.
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What surfaces are good at absorbing and emitting IR?
Light coloured or silver, shiny surfaces.
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What can IR travel through a vacuum?
It does not need a medium to travel through.
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How does double glazing reduce energy loss?
By conduction. The gap between 2 pieces of glass is filled with a gas or contains a vacuum. Particles in gas are far apart so it is difficult to transfer heat.
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How does loft insulation reduce energy loss?
By conduction and convection. Air in the loft is warmed by the top of the ceiling and is trapped in the insulation. Both sides of the ceiling are the same temperature so no energy is transferred.
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What would happen to a house if it did not have loft insulation?
The warm air in the loft will heat the roof tiles and energy will be transferred to the outside by conduction.
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How does cavity wall insulation reduce energy loss?
By conduction and convection. The air in the foam is a good insulator, the air cannot move as it is trapped in the foam. However, energy can still be transferred by radiation.
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What is the payback time equation?
Payback Time = cost of energy saving measure/amount of money saved each year.
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What is a sankey diagram?
Shows the total energy input and how it is transformed into other energy forms.
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What is the amplitude of a wave and what is it measured in?
Maximum height of the wave. Measured in metres.
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What is the wavelength of a wave? What is it measured in?
Shortest distance between one point and the same point of the next wave. Measured in metres.
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What is the frequency of a wave? What is it measured in?
The number of waves passing a point per second (or oscillations per second). Measured in hertz.
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Give examples of a transverse wave.
light waves, UV, X-Rays
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Give an example of a longitudinal wave.
Sound waves.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Define heat. What is it measured in?

#### Back

How much (kinetic) energy an object contains. This is measured in Joules (J).

### Card 3

#### Front

What is specific heat capacity?

### Card 4

#### Front

How can a cooling curve be used?

### Card 5

#### Front

What is specific latent heat?