# P1

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The transfer of heat energy by electromagnetic radiation.
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If an object is hotter, will it give out more or less infrared radiation?
More
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What are the three factors the amount of infrared radiation depends on?
Shape, surface area, dimensions
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At the same temperature, dark matt surfaces...
Emit and absorb more infrared radiation than light, shiny surfaces
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Will an object emit and absorb infrared radiation faster if there is a bigger or smaller difference in temperature between it and its surroundings?
Bigger
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What is the kinetic theory?
Explains the different states and properties of matter in terms of the movement on millions and millions of particlrs
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When the temperature increases....
The gas molecules move faster and there is more collisions per second
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When the temperature decreases...
The gas molecules move slower, the molecules move closer together, the collisions become less frequent and the gas begins to form a liquid
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Explain what the atoms do in a solid?
Vibrate around a fixed position so they form a regular and ordinary pattern
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Name the four mechanisms of energy transfer by heating
Conduction, convection, evaporation, condensation
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What is conduction?
The transfer of energy by heating without the substance itself moving.
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Metals are good conductors of energy because...
As the metal heats up, the atoms vibrate more vigorously and this energy is transferred to the cooler parts of the metal by free electrons
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What are insulators?
Materials that have few or no free electrons so they can't transfer energy by heating
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What is convection?
Transfer of heat energy by heating through the movement of particles
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Explain the convection current cycle
1) particles in the liquid move faster causing the substance to expand and become less dense 2) the warm liquid rises vertically as it doe so it cools, becomes denser and sinks 3) the colder, denser liquid or gas moves into the space created
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What is evaporation?
Transfer of energy at the surface of a liquid
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Explain evaporation in terms of the kinetic theory
Atoms/molecules that are moving most rapidly are located at the surface of liquid. These particles become more like a gas and escape. The overall energy of the atoms then reduces. This results in a fall in temperature.
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What is condensation?
Opposite of evaporation, where the gas or vapour returns to a liquid state at the surface
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The rate at which a material transfers energy depends on...
Its surface area and volume, type of material, the nature of the surface with which the material is in contact, temperature
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If there is a bigger temperature difference between an object and its surroundings, is the rate of energy transfer faster or slower?
There is a faster rate of energy transfer
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What is a U-Value
Measures how good a material is at insulating
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If the u-value is lower, is the material better or worse at insulating?
Better
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What is the specific heat capacity?
The amount of energy required to change the temperature of 1kg of material by 1°C
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Can energy be created or destroyed?
No
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What does remaining energy turn into?
Transferred in a non-useful way (waste energy). It increasingly spreads out so warms its surroundings.
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What does a Sankey Diagram show?
The relative proportions of energy transfer using arrows
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What does the efficiency of a device refer to?
The proportion of energy that is usually transferred.
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The greater the proportion of energy the...
More efficient and the more cost effective the device is
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What is the energy called that is transferred to houses and industry?
Electrical energy
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Electrical energy is easily transferred...
By heaters to heat surroundings, into light energy, into sound energy, into kinetic energy
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The amount of energy transferred by an electrical appliance depends on...
How long the appliance is switched on, how fast the appliance transfers energy
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What are energy and power measured in?
Joules (J) and Watts (W) / Kilowatts (kW)
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What are the different energy sources called?
Fossil Fuels (coal, oil, gas), Nuclear Fuels (uranium, plutonium), Biofuels (wood, methane)
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What are the four main non-renewable energy sources?
Nuclear, coal, oil, gas
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A - cost is low, rate of fuel use is low, doesn't produce co2 or so4 D - radioactive waste produced, costly to build, difficulty to store radioactive material
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A - relatively cheap and easy to extract D - produces co2 and so4
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A - easy to find, doesn't produce, large amounts available D - produces co2 and so4, risk of spillage and pollution,, destruction of wildlife
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A - easy to find, doesn't produce so4 D - produces c02, eyesore, destruction of wildlife habitats
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What are the two main sources for renewable energy?
The Sun and Moon
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The Sun causes...
Evaporation - rain and flowing water Convection currents - wind that creates waves
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What are biofuels?
Obtained from lifeless or living biological matter
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Biofuels include...
Liquid ethanol, methane gas, straw nutshells and woodchip
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What are the 6 main ways to obtain of renewable energy
Wind, tidal, hydroelectric, solar, geothermal, biofuels
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A - no fuel, no pollutant gases produced, can be built offshore D - visual and noise pollution, high cable building cost, not flexible in meeting demand, variation in wind affects output
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A - no fuel, no pollutants produced, barrage water can be released when high demand D - visual pollution, destroy habitats, variation in tides affects output, high cost to build
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A - fast start up time, no pollutants produced, water can be pumped back when demand is low D - destruction of wildlife habitats, need an adequate rainfall, high initial costs
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A - uses light from sun, no pollutant gases produced, small scale production possible D - demands on light intensity, efficiency is poor, visual production of large areas of solar panels
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A - flexible product, cost effective, little impact on the environment D - limited resources due to land area requirements
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A - no pollutants, low start up cost D - restricted to only certain volcanic areas, subsidence risk
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What is carbon capture?
The capture and storage of carbon dioxide. This is vital to reduce the effects of global warming
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What is the National Grid?
Electricity that is generated in power stations and transferred to home, schools and industry
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What are transformers used to do?
Change the potential difference of the alternating current supply before and after it is transmitted through the National Grid
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What are the two types of transformer?
Step up and step down
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What does a step up transformer do?
Increase the potential difference allowing power lines to transmit electricity from the power station with reduced energy loss
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What does a step down transformer do?
Decrease the potential difference and increase the current before it is used by consumers
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What are the two types of waves?
Transverse and longitudinal
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What is a transverse wave?
Where the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer e.g. electromagnetic and water waves
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What is a longitudinal wave?
The oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer e.g. sound waves. These waves show areas of compression and refraction
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What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
Extends from high frequency to low frequency
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What is visible light?
One type of electromagnetic radiation and is the only part of the spectrum we can see
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What is wavelength?
The distance between two successive peaks or troughs in a wave
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What is the amplitude?
The peak movement of the wave from its rest point
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What is the frequency?
The number of waves passing in one second. Measured in Hz.
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What is reflection?
When a wave strikes a reflective surface and changes direction
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What is the normal line?
Construction line drawn perpendicular to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence
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When an object is viewed in a plane mirror, the image formed is....
Virtual, upright, the same size, laterally inverted
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What sound range can humans hear?
Between 20Hz and 20,000Hz
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What is the pitch of a sound?
Determined by its frequency. As the frequency increases, the pitch becomes higher.
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What is an echo?
Examples of sound being reflected at a surface
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If a wave source is moving away or towards an observer, there will be a change in the...
Observed wavelength and frequency
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What is the Doppler Effect?
The change in wavelength and frequency due to the movement of the source of the wave
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What is red-shift?
When a light source moves away from you, the observed wavelength increases and the frequency decreases
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What is blue-shift?
When a light source moves towards you, the observed wavelength decreases and the frequency increases
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The further away a galaxy is...
The faster it is moving, and the bigger the increase in observed wavelength
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The observed red **** of galaxies supports the idea that...
The whole Universe is expanding and the expansion began from a very small initial point in a huge explosion known as the big bang
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What is cosmic microwave background radiation?
Form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the entire Universe.
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What is the electromagnetic spectrum (in order)?
Radio waves, micro waves, infrared, radiation, visible light, ultra violet, x rays, gamma rays
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

If an object is hotter, will it give out more or less infrared radiation?

More

### Card 3

#### Front

What are the three factors the amount of infrared radiation depends on?

### Card 4

#### Front

At the same temperature, dark matt surfaces...

### Card 5

#### Front

Will an object emit and absorb infrared radiation faster if there is a bigger or smaller difference in temperature between it and its surroundings?

#### Back

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slide 6, particles spelt wrong

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I like this. btw im a camel

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im a camel too

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is this only for the topic energy ?

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Hahaha slide 75

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